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What is the Memorandum of Understanding, Conference on Security, Stability, Development and Cooperation in Africa (CSSDCA) (2002) ?
in Social Studies by Bronze Status (8,080 points)
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To respect and abide by the following indivisible core values, all of primary importance, in guiding our relations: - a) Every African State is sovereign. Every State respects the rights inherent in the territorial integrity and political independence of all other African States, without prejudice to the provisions of Article 4 of the AU Constitutive Act, sections (d) and (h) and other relevant international instruments. b) The centrality of security as a multi-dimensional phenomenon that goes beyond military considerations and embraces all aspects of human existence, including economic, political and social dimensions of individual, family, community and national life. c) Peace and security are central to the realization of development of both the state and individuals. Thus the security of the African people, their land and property must be safeguarded to ensure stability, development and cooperation of African countries. d) The security of each African country is inseparably linked to that of other African countries and the African continent as a whole. OAU/CIVIL SOCIETY.3 (II) Annex Page 3 e) The plight of African Refugees and Internally Displaced Persons constitutes a scar on the conscience of African governments and people. f) Africa’s strategic and natural resources are the property of the people of Africa and the leadership should exploit them for the common good of the people of the continent, having due regard for the need to restore, preserve and protect the environment. g) Uncontrolled spread of small arms and light weapons as well as the problem of landmines, constitute a threat to peace and security in the African continent. h) Good governance including, accountability, transparency, the rule of law, elimination of corruption and unhindered exercise of individual rights as enshrined in the African Charter on Human and People’s Rights and those of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights is a pre-requisite for sustainable peace and security in Africa as well as a necessary condition for economic development, cooperation and integration; i) A fundamental link exists between stability, human security, development and cooperation in a manner that each reinforces the other. j) Sustainable Stability in Africa demands the establishment and strengthening of democratic structures and good governance based on common tenets. k) The rejection of unconstitutional changes of government in any African country as a threat to order and stability in the African continent as a whole. l) Respect and promotion of human rights, the rule of law and equitable social order as the foundation for national and continental stability. m)The eradication of corruption, which undermines Africa’s quest for socio-economic development and the achievement of sustainable stability in the continent. OAU/CIVIL SOCIETY.3 (II) Annex Page 4 n) No political organisation should be created on the basis of religious, sectarian, ethnic, regional or racial considerations. Political life should be devoid of any extremism. o) The conduct of electoral processes in a transparent and credible manner and a concomitant obligation by the parties and candidates to abide by the outcome of such processes in order to enhance national and continental stability. p) Development is about expanding human freedoms. The effort of Member States at achieving development is aimed at the maximum expansion of the freedoms that people enjoy; q) The freedoms that Africans seek and deserve, inter alia, include freedom from hunger, freedom from disease, freedom from ignorance and access to the basic necessities for enhancing the quality of life. These freedoms can best be achieved through expansion of the economic space including the rapid creation of wealth; r) Economic development is a combined result of individual action. Africans must be free to work and use their creative energies to improve their well-being in their own countries. The state’s involvement in the activities of individual economic actors should be supportive of individual initiatives; s) Acknowledgement of the important role of the state in economic development not only in providing regulatory framework but also through active cooperation with private sector, and civil society, including business associations and organizations as partners of development to promote economic growth, social and economic justice; t) All priorities in economic policy making shall be geared towards eliminating poverty from the continent and generating rapid and sustainable development in the shortest possible time; u) Cooperation and integration in Africa is key to the continent’s socio-economic transformation and effective integration into the world economy; OAU/CIVIL SOCIETY.3 (II) Annex Page 5 v) Harmonization and strengthening of the Regional Economic Communities (RECs) in key areas as an essential component of the integration process, through the transfer of certain responsibilities as well as effective reporting and communication structure involving the RECs in continental initiatives; w) Strong political commitment including the involvement of all stakeholders, the private sector, civil society, women and youth as a fundamental principle for the achievement of regional economic integration and development; x) Investment in Science and Technology as a fundamental input into the development of all sectors and raising living standards.
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