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Do "causal effect" and "causal association"  refer to different things?
in Data Science by Diamond (61,678 points) | 6 views

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"Causal effect" and "causal association"  refer to the same thing. People use them interchangeably.

Be careful though because causal association is just but a part of total association between two variables. The total association can be decomposed into both causal association and non-causal association (one part of which is confounding association).
by Diamond (61,678 points)

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