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What do the fields in ls -al output mean?
in Data Science & Statistics by Diamond (75,918 points) | 936 views

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The output of the so called "link count" depends on the file system. Under XFS, for example, it shows the number of sub-directories, for example:

 

$ ls -al fast_recovery_area/

total 4

drwxrwx---. 4 oracle oinstall   29 May 21 16:51 .

drwxrwx---. 3 oracle oinstall   32 Jun 11 16:48 ..

drwxr-x---. 8 oracle asmadmin 4096 May 21 17:42 CDB

drwxr-x---. 7 oracle asmadmin   95 May 14 22:25 ORCL

 

$ ls -ld fast_recovery_area

drwxrwx---. 4 oracle oinstall 29 May 21 16:51 fast_recovery_area

 

Under BtrFS, however, it always shows 1, regardless.

by Diamond (75,918 points)
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In the order of output:

-rwxrw-r--    1    root   root 2048    Jan 13 07:11 db.dump
  • file permissions,
  • number of links,
  • owner name,
  • owner group,
  • file size,
  • time of last modification,
  • file/directory name

File permissions is displayed as following:

  • first character is - or l or dd indicates a directory, a - represents a file, l is a symlink (or soft link) - special type of file
  • three sets of characters, three times, indicating permissions for owner, group and other:
    • r = readable
    • w = writable
    • x = executable

In your example -rwxrw-r--, this means the line displayed is:

  • a regular file (displayed as -)
  • readable, writable and executable by owner (rwx)
  • readable, writable, but not executable by group (rw-)
  • readable but not writable or executable by other (r--)
by Diamond (75,918 points)

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