Become Aware Of The Context of Geographical Statistical Techniques

back
Lecture 1 – Introduction to Statistical Techniques for Geography

Transcript:

00:00
hi and welcome to geographical analysis
00:03
my name is dr. Steven Farber this is
00:05
lecture 1 the context of statistical
00:08
techniques in today’s lecture I am going
00:10
to introduce you to the field of
00:13
statistics how it plays a role in
00:15
geography both in terms of research and
00:18
practice and also we’re going to go over
00:20
some of the fundamental introductory
00:23
concepts that we’re going to use in this
00:25
class to begin let’s talk about what
00:29
geography is the the dictionary
00:32
definition state that geography is a
00:34
science that deals with describing in
00:39
understanding spatial distributions
00:41
across the Earth’s surface and when we
00:44
talk about describing a location on the
00:47
Earth’s surface we might be interested
00:50
in some sort of physical features like
00:53
mountains and streams and rivers forests
00:56
we might be interested alternatively in
00:59
some kind of human processes like where
01:03
urban settlements take place what kinds
01:06
of land-use patterns people produce on
01:08
the Earth’s surface and often we’re very
01:11
interested in knowing how these
01:13
different types of processes interact
01:15
with one another over space and
01:17
especially in today’s world where we
01:20
have such an emphasis on understanding
01:23
sustainability were often charged with
01:26
the task of trying to understand how
01:29
human systems are interacting with
01:31
environmental systems and we want to
01:34
know how we can improve different
01:36
locations on the Earth’s surface or
01:39
conserve the quality of the Earth’s
01:41
surface for future generations so we’re
01:46
very typical we’re very typically using
01:49
statistical techniques to answer
01:52
questions about locations on the Earth’s
01:54
surface we want to know what our place
01:56
is like how do places compare to one
01:59
another whether or not processes are
02:02
interacting with with each other over
02:04
space and how that occurs and how and
02:08
what as policymakers or researchers or
02:10
government or business what can we do to
02:12
and
02:13
to change on on the surface of the earth
02:16
or to stop a process that’s occurring
02:19
that might be damaging something either
02:23
in our cities or out in in conservation
02:26
areas so geography is a very nebulous
02:31
field you know a traditional way to
02:34
think of geography is is that it’s this
02:36
integrative science so what this plot is
02:39
showing here and bear with me as I as I
02:43
learned the technologies that I’m trying
02:45
to use here for the first time let me
02:47
try the pen what this plot is showing
02:49
here is a split between different
02:52
scientific disciplines so over here we
02:56
have the physical sciences and down
03:00
below we have the human and social
03:04
sciences and in fact I didn’t want to do
03:06
that let me try something else here I
03:09
chose a laser pointer there we go so up
03:15
over here we have the the the physical
03:19
sciences and down below human and social
03:21
sciences and each of these disciplines
03:24
is a discipline on to itself but they
03:26
interact with geography when we are
03:29
trying to understand these disciplines
03:33
from the perspective of a location in
03:36
space or a location on the Earth’s
03:38
surface so you know biology is a field
03:45
unto itself but when we’re interested in
03:47
the spatial distributions of life-forms
03:51
across the earth surfaces like a map of
03:54
say species distributions then we’re
03:57
entering into the field of biogeography
03:59
trying to understand by a graphical
04:04
features but within the context of
04:09
locations on the Earth’s surface and we
04:11
can do that for basically any of the
04:15
earth sciences or physical sciences or
04:17
any of the human and social sciences as
04:20
well and while this charts from 1999 on
04:24
the human side for example lists
04:27
sociology history and economics I think
04:30
it’s really important to understand that
04:32
that geography intersects with all of
04:36
the social sciences we’ve got political
04:38
science and geopolitics we’ve got health
04:40
public health and health geography
04:44
geography plays a big role in
04:46
understanding tourism and leisure some
04:50
of my background is in retail
04:52
geographies are trying to understand
04:53
spatial distributions of where stores
04:56
are in urban areas what type of stores
04:59
are where how big their market areas and
05:02
so on so geography tends to be
05:07
integrative because when we’re trying to
05:09
understand the locational
05:11
characteristics of say species we might
05:14
also need to consider the the the
05:20
pattern of urbanization on the Earth’s
05:22
surface in urban geography is a subset
05:24
really of economic geography so because
05:28
we are untried to understand the
05:30
characteristics of a location of the
05:32
biota of the region we might also need
05:35
to understand the economy of the region
05:37
maybe the history of the region or the
05:40
demographics of the region so geography
05:43
really is charged with the task of
05:46
trying to integrate and try to
05:49
understand how these different
05:50
disciplines fit together and how they
05:55
interact with with each other at a
05:57
specific location or across different
05:59
locations on the Earth’s surface if you
06:03
if you think about geography as a
06:07
discipline and a lot of you are
06:09
University of Utah students but if
06:11
you’re not that’s okay this probably
06:13
applies to the department where you’re
06:15
the geography department where you are
06:17
but but we can think about splitting the
06:23
discipline of geography up into these
06:25
categories and this is a slightly older
06:28
synthesis but I think a lot of it a lot
06:31
of what this chart shows us has remained
06:34
pretty much the same there’s some newer
06:37
versions of this out there but this one
06:39
is more
06:39
basic and understandable but generally
06:42
speaking we are mostly seeing
06:45
geographers and geography departments to
06:48
find themselves along systemic divides
06:51
and that means we are geographers are
06:54
typically situated within either
06:59
understanding physical systems or
07:01
understanding human systems so I do
07:04
urban geography transportation geography
07:07
economic geography so I would consider
07:09
myself a human geographer but we have
07:12
pyro geographers in our department we
07:15
have glaciologists I’m not sure if
07:21
that’s a term actually but these are you
07:23
know the types of research activities
07:26
that are taking place on the physical
07:27
side of this of the geography spectrum
07:30
now in addition to having this divide of
07:33
physical versus human these are systemic
07:36
divides a lot of geographers will also
07:39
have some sort of regional focus as well
07:43
and that regional focus well those can
07:46
be termed as ecological zones so as
07:51
zonal region so as someone who studies
07:54
polar icecaps someone who might study
07:57
tropical geography deserts mountain
07:59
regions or those regions might be
08:02
cultural or human generated region so
08:05
Latin America North America and someone
08:10
who focuses on the geography of Africa
08:12
for example so these are cultural
08:14
divides and and typically in a geography
08:19
department you’ll also find some people
08:21
who really specialize in techniques so
08:24
people who research how to make maps
08:26
cartographers or people who research
08:28
statistical methods for conducting
08:31
geographical analysis in any of these
08:34
other disciplines or subfields so we do
08:37
have people that that really specialize
08:39
in techniques as well I happen to be one
08:42
of those people as well and and this
08:45
class is really going to focus on
08:49
quantitative methods for Geographic
08:52
research
08:53
and we’re going to take examples from
08:55
physical and human systems or from
08:58
different regions and on the planet and
09:01
try to apply quantitative analysis in
09:04
order to come up with answer questions
09:07
about that arise from from these sub
09:10
disciplines

Share with: