MathsGee Homework Help Q&A - Recent questions and answers in Data Science & Statistics
https://mathsgee.com/qa/data-science
Powered by Question2AnswerHow does a scatter plot help you detect a relationship between variables?
https://mathsgee.com/36569/does-scatter-plot-help-detect-relationship-between-variables
How does a scatter plot help you detect a relationship between variables?Data Science & Statisticshttps://mathsgee.com/36569/does-scatter-plot-help-detect-relationship-between-variablesSun, 23 Jan 2022 23:16:35 +0000How can you determine if it is a positive or negative relationship?
https://mathsgee.com/36568/how-can-you-determine-if-it-positive-negative-relationship
How can you determine if it is a positive or negative relationship?Data Science & Statisticshttps://mathsgee.com/36568/how-can-you-determine-if-it-positive-negative-relationshipSun, 23 Jan 2022 23:16:15 +0000Should negative relationships be avoided? Why or why not?
https://mathsgee.com/36567/should-negative-relationships-be-avoided-why-or-why-not
Should negative relationships be avoided? Why or why not?Data Science & Statisticshttps://mathsgee.com/36567/should-negative-relationships-be-avoided-why-or-why-notSun, 23 Jan 2022 23:15:54 +0000Does a strong positive correlation explain the cause of the trend?
https://mathsgee.com/36566/does-strong-positive-correlation-explain-the-cause-the-trend
Does a strong positive correlation explain the cause of the trend?Data Science & Statisticshttps://mathsgee.com/36566/does-strong-positive-correlation-explain-the-cause-the-trendSun, 23 Jan 2022 23:15:27 +0000Will a Pearson correlation coefficient help describe relationships in seasonal data?
https://mathsgee.com/36565/correlation-coefficient-describe-relationships-seasonal
Will a Pearson correlation coefficient help describe relationships in seasonal data?Data Science & Statisticshttps://mathsgee.com/36565/correlation-coefficient-describe-relationships-seasonalSun, 23 Jan 2022 23:14:59 +0000Answered: What is the difference between covariance and correlation coefficient?
https://mathsgee.com/36563/what-difference-between-covariance-correlation-coefficient?show=36564#a36564
<p><strong>Covariance:</strong></p>
<ul>
<li>The covariance is a measure of the linear association between two variables.</li>
</ul>
<p> </p>
<p><strong>Correlation Coefficient:</strong></p>
<ul>
<li>The Pearson correlation coefficient can take on values between \(-1\) and \(+1\).</li>
<li>Positive values indicate a positive relationship.</li>
<li>Negative values indicate a negative relationship.</li>
<li>The closer the correlation is to zero, the weaker the relationship.</li>
</ul>Data Science & Statisticshttps://mathsgee.com/36563/what-difference-between-covariance-correlation-coefficient?show=36564#a36564Sun, 23 Jan 2022 23:11:07 +0000Answered: What is the difference between Empirical Rule and Chebyshev's inequality in determining what fraction of data you expect to see in a given range?
https://mathsgee.com/36561/difference-empirical-chebyshevs-inequality-determining?show=36562#a36562
The Empirical Rule and z-scores define what is expected vs. what is unusual for normally distributed data. Chebyshev's Theorem helps with non-normal and unknown distributions.<br />
<br />
Given the mean and standard deviation of a data set, what fraction of the data to you expect to see within a range?<br />
<br />
<br />
\begin{array}{|l|l|l|}<br />
\hline & \text { Empirical Rule } & \text { Chebyshev } \\<br />
\hline \text { Data } & \text { Normal } & \text { Unknown } \\<br />
\hline \text { Z-score range } & \text { Precisely } & \text { At Least } \\<br />
\hline+/-1 & 68.26 \% & 0 \% \\<br />
\hline+/-2 & 95.44 \% & 75 \% \\<br />
\hline+/-3 & 99.74 \% & 89 \% \\<br />
\hline+/-4 & 99.99 \% & 94 \% \\<br />
\hline<br />
\end{array}Data Science & Statisticshttps://mathsgee.com/36561/difference-empirical-chebyshevs-inequality-determining?show=36562#a36562Sun, 23 Jan 2022 23:05:17 +0000Answered: What does Chebyshev's theorem state?
https://mathsgee.com/36558/what-does-chebyshevs-theorem-state?show=36559#a36559
Chebyshev's inequality is more general, stating that a minimum of just 75% of values must lie within two standard deviations of the mean and 88.89% within three standard deviations for a broad range of different probability distributions.<br />
<br />
Chebyshev's Theorem estimates the minimum proportion of observations that fall within a specified number of standard deviations from the mean. This theorem applies to a broad range of probability distributions. Chebyshev's Theorem is also known as Chebyshev's Inequality.<br />
<br />
If you have a mean and standard deviation, you might need to know the proportion of values that lie within, say, plus and minus two standard deviations of the mean. If your data follow the normal distribution, that's easy using the Empirical Rule! However, what if you don't know the distribution of your data or you know that it doesn't follow the normal distribution? In that case, Chebyshev's Theorem can help you out!<br />
<br />
Maximum proportion of observations that are more than \(\mathrm{k}\) standard \[\frac{1}{k^{2}}\] deviations from the mean<br />
Minimum proportion of observations that are within \(k\) standard deviations of the mean<br />
\[<br />
1-\frac{1}{k^{2}}<br />
\]<br />
Where \(k\) equals the number of standard deviations in which you are interested. \(K\) must be greater than \(1 .\)Data Science & Statisticshttps://mathsgee.com/36558/what-does-chebyshevs-theorem-state?show=36559#a36559Sun, 23 Jan 2022 22:58:59 +0000Answered: How does the empirical rule help determine outliers?
https://mathsgee.com/36556/how-does-the-empirical-rule-help-determine-outliers?show=36557#a36557
An outlier is an unusually small or unusually large value in a data set.<br />
<br />
A data value with a z-score less than \(-3\) or greater than \(+3\) might be considered an outlier.<br />
<br />
It might be:<br />
- an incorrectly recorded data value<br />
- a data value that was incorrectly included in the data set<br />
- a correctly recorded data value that belongs in the data setData Science & Statisticshttps://mathsgee.com/36556/how-does-the-empirical-rule-help-determine-outliers?show=36557#a36557Sun, 23 Jan 2022 22:47:05 +0000Answered: What do z-scores denote?
https://mathsgee.com/36554/what-do-z-scores-denote?show=36555#a36555
<p>Z-Score denotes the number of standard deviations a data value \(x_{i}\) is from the mean.</p>
<p>\[Z_{i}=\frac{x_{i}-\bar{x}}{s}\]</p>
<p><img alt="z-score" src="https://mathsgee.com/?qa=blob&qa_blobid=18119019598662594499" style="height:317px; width:600px"></p>
<p>An observation's z-score is a measure of the relative location of the observation in a data set.
<br>
An observations' data value greater than the sample mean will have a zscore greater than zero.</p>
<p>An observation's data value less than the sample mean will have a z-score less than zero.</p>
<p>An observation's data value equal to the sample mean will have a z-score of zero.</p>
<p> </p>Data Science & Statisticshttps://mathsgee.com/36554/what-do-z-scores-denote?show=36555#a36555Sun, 23 Jan 2022 22:43:23 +0000Answered: When is cross-tabulation used in data analysis?
https://mathsgee.com/36552/when-is-cross-tabulation-used-in-data-analysis?show=36553#a36553
Crosstabulation can be used when:<br />
<br />
- one variable is categorical and the other is quantitative,<br />
- both variables are categorical, or<br />
- both variables are quantitative.Data Science & Statisticshttps://mathsgee.com/36552/when-is-cross-tabulation-used-in-data-analysis?show=36553#a36553Sun, 23 Jan 2022 22:34:43 +0000Answered: What is cross tabulation in statistics?
https://mathsgee.com/36550/what-is-cross-tabulation-in-statistics?show=36551#a36551
Cross-tabulation, also known as cross-tab or contingency table, is a statistical tool used for categorical data. Crosstabulation is a method for summarizing the data for two variables.Data Science & Statisticshttps://mathsgee.com/36550/what-is-cross-tabulation-in-statistics?show=36551#a36551Sun, 23 Jan 2022 22:32:40 +0000Answered: What is Simpson's paradox?
https://mathsgee.com/36548/what-is-simpsons-paradox?show=36549#a36549
When several groups of data produce a summary trend that disappears or reverses when combined.Data Science & Statisticshttps://mathsgee.com/36548/what-is-simpsons-paradox?show=36549#a36549Sun, 23 Jan 2022 22:29:28 +0000Answered: What does it mean when data is negatively skewed (skewed to the left)?
https://mathsgee.com/36546/what-does-it-mean-when-data-negatively-skewed-skewed-the-left?show=36547#a36547
Data is negatively skewed (skewed to the left) when the mean is less than the median (usually).Data Science & Statisticshttps://mathsgee.com/36546/what-does-it-mean-when-data-negatively-skewed-skewed-the-left?show=36547#a36547Sun, 23 Jan 2022 22:27:01 +0000Answered: What does it mean when data is positively skewed (skewed to the right)?
https://mathsgee.com/36544/what-does-mean-when-data-positively-skewed-skewed-the-right?show=36545#a36545
Data is positively skewed (skewed to the right) when the mean is greater than the median (usually).Data Science & Statisticshttps://mathsgee.com/36544/what-does-mean-when-data-positively-skewed-skewed-the-right?show=36545#a36545Sun, 23 Jan 2022 22:25:21 +0000Answered: When is data skewness equal to zero?
https://mathsgee.com/36542/when-is-data-skewness-equal-to-zero?show=36543#a36543
Data skewness is equal to zero when mean = median = modeData Science & Statisticshttps://mathsgee.com/36542/when-is-data-skewness-equal-to-zero?show=36543#a36543Sun, 23 Jan 2022 22:22:59 +0000What is a census?
https://mathsgee.com/36541/what-is-a-census
What is a census?Data Science & Statisticshttps://mathsgee.com/36541/what-is-a-censusSun, 23 Jan 2022 22:20:38 +0000Answered: What is statistical inference?
https://mathsgee.com/36539/what-is-statistical-inference?show=36540#a36540
<p><strong>Statistical inference:</strong> The process of using data obtained from a sample to make estimates and test hypotheses about the characteristics of a population.</p>Data Science & Statisticshttps://mathsgee.com/36539/what-is-statistical-inference?show=36540#a36540Sun, 23 Jan 2022 22:19:58 +0000Answered: What is the difference between descriptive and inferential statistics?
https://mathsgee.com/30815/what-difference-between-descriptive-inferential-statistics?show=36538#a36538
<p><strong>Descriptive</strong>
<br>
- Summaries of data, which may be tabular, graphical, or numerical
<br>
- Population or a Sample
<br>
- Mean, Median, Mode
<br>
- Range, Variance, Standard Deviation, Skew, Percentiles, Covariance</p>
<p> </p>
<p><strong>Inferential</strong>
<br>
- Makes predictions about a population based on a sample of data representing the population in question</p>Data Science & Statisticshttps://mathsgee.com/30815/what-difference-between-descriptive-inferential-statistics?show=36538#a36538Sun, 23 Jan 2022 22:18:39 +0000Answered: What is the difference between observational and experimental data?
https://mathsgee.com/36535/what-difference-between-observational-experimental-data?show=36536#a36536
<p><strong>Observational</strong>
<br>
- No control groups or conditions
<br>
- Surveys, opinion polls</p>
<p> </p>
<p><strong>Experimental</strong>
<br>
- one or more variables are identified and controlled
<br>
- Data can be obtained about influence on a variable of interest</p>Data Science & Statisticshttps://mathsgee.com/36535/what-difference-between-observational-experimental-data?show=36536#a36536Sun, 23 Jan 2022 22:16:01 +0000Answered: What is a time series?
https://mathsgee.com/36533/what-is-a-time-series?show=36534#a36534
Time series data are collected over several time periods.Data Science & Statisticshttps://mathsgee.com/36533/what-is-a-time-series?show=36534#a36534Sun, 23 Jan 2022 22:14:21 +0000Answered: What is cross-sectional data?
https://mathsgee.com/36531/what-is-cross-sectional-data?show=36532#a36532
Cross-sectional data are collected at the same or approximately the same point in time.Data Science & Statisticshttps://mathsgee.com/36531/what-is-cross-sectional-data?show=36532#a36532Sun, 23 Jan 2022 22:13:33 +0000Answered: How granular can data collected as aggregated be analyzed at a granular level?
https://mathsgee.com/36529/granular-data-collected-aggregated-analyzed-granular-level?show=36530#a36530
Quantitative measures can be grouped into categories for analysis and retain properties of their measurement.<br />
<br />
But data collected at a higher, aggregated level can't go down to a deeper level of granularity later. Grouping results in data loss of some sort.<br />
<br />
For example, if you do decide to collect age as ordinal data, you can't calculate the average age later on and your analytics will be limited to "age by groups;" you won't have the option to analyze it as ratio data.Data Science & Statisticshttps://mathsgee.com/36529/granular-data-collected-aggregated-analyzed-granular-level?show=36530#a36530Sun, 23 Jan 2022 22:12:12 +0000Answered: What happens to quantitative statistical measures when grouped?
https://mathsgee.com/36527/what-happens-quantitative-statistical-measures-when-grouped?show=36528#a36528
<p>Quantitative measures can be grouped into categories for analysis and retain properties of their measurement.
<br>
<br>
For example:
<br>
<br>
<strong>What age range are you in?</strong>
<br>
(Ordinal)
<br>
A. 15-19
<br>
B. 20-24
<br>
C. 25-29
<br>
D. 30-34
<br>
E. 35-39
<br>
F. 40-44</p>
<p>
<br>
<strong>What is your age?</strong>
<br>
(Ratio)
<br>
\(17,19,24,27,32, 33,43,45,47,52\)</p>
<p> </p>
<p> </p>Data Science & Statisticshttps://mathsgee.com/36527/what-happens-quantitative-statistical-measures-when-grouped?show=36528#a36528Sun, 23 Jan 2022 22:07:34 +0000Answered: What is the connection between the different scales of measurement?
https://mathsgee.com/36524/what-the-connection-between-different-scales-measurement?show=36525#a36525
<p>The connection between the different scales of measurement is as given in the diagram below:</p>
<p><img alt="measurement" src="https://mathsgee.com/?qa=blob&qa_blobid=6100404003079577795" style="height:336px; width:600px"></p>Data Science & Statisticshttps://mathsgee.com/36524/what-the-connection-between-different-scales-measurement?show=36525#a36525Sun, 23 Jan 2022 22:03:07 +0000Answered: Give an illustration of Data, Data Sets, Elements, Variables, and Observations
https://mathsgee.com/36522/give-illustration-data-data-elements-variables-observations?show=36523#a36523
<p>Below is an illustration of Data, Data Sets, Elements, Variables, and Observations.</p>
<p><img alt="dataset" src="https://mathsgee.com/?qa=blob&qa_blobid=1025963650340715542" style="height:223px; width:600px"></p>Data Science & Statisticshttps://mathsgee.com/36522/give-illustration-data-data-elements-variables-observations?show=36523#a36523Sun, 23 Jan 2022 21:59:48 +0000Answered: What is the relationship between number of elements and number of variables in data collection?
https://mathsgee.com/36520/relationship-between-number-elements-variables-collection?show=36521#a36521
Total Observations in the data set is the number of elements multiplied by the number of variables.Data Science & Statisticshttps://mathsgee.com/36520/relationship-between-number-elements-variables-collection?show=36521#a36521Sun, 23 Jan 2022 21:57:34 +0000Answered: What are observations in statistical data collection?
https://mathsgee.com/36518/what-are-observations-in-statistical-data-collection?show=36519#a36519
Observations are sets of measurements obtained for a particular element.Data Science & Statisticshttps://mathsgee.com/36518/what-are-observations-in-statistical-data-collection?show=36519#a36519Sun, 23 Jan 2022 21:56:16 +0000Answered: What are variables in statistical data collection?
https://mathsgee.com/36516/what-are-variables-in-statistical-data-collection?show=36517#a36517
Variables are characteristics of interest for the elements.Data Science & Statisticshttps://mathsgee.com/36516/what-are-variables-in-statistical-data-collection?show=36517#a36517Sun, 23 Jan 2022 21:55:17 +0000Answered: What are elements in statistical data collection?
https://mathsgee.com/36514/what-are-elements-in-statistical-data-collection?show=36515#a36515
Elements are the entities on which data are collected.Data Science & Statisticshttps://mathsgee.com/36514/what-are-elements-in-statistical-data-collection?show=36515#a36515Sun, 23 Jan 2022 21:54:20 +0000Answered: Define the deductive research approach
https://mathsgee.com/36156/define-the-deductive-research-approach?show=36157#a36157
The deductive research approach scans theory, derives logical conclusions from this theory and presents them in the form of hypothesis (H) and propositions (P), tests them in an empirical setting and then presents its general conclusions based on the corroboration or falsification of its self-generated H/P. The logical sequence of the research is from rule to case to result, (Kovacs \& Spens, 2005). It is based upon the principle that the researcher, through an in-depth literature review, proposes a given connection between different variables in the study. The theory being tested has to undergo a quantitative or qualitative test or a combination of the two, termed as triangulation, (Stentoft Arlbjorn \& Halldorsson, 2002). This is particularly clear in the prototypical computo-representational approach, that is, the system-expert model, in terms of if ... then (with the pattern of the well-known Socratic deductive reasoning: All men are mortals; if \(x\) is a man, then \(x\) is mortal) (Andreewsky \& Bourcier, 2000).Data Science & Statisticshttps://mathsgee.com/36156/define-the-deductive-research-approach?show=36157#a36157Mon, 17 Jan 2022 22:11:22 +0000Interactive Quiz - Are you Data Science Savvy?
https://mathsgee.com/36132/interactive-quiz-are-you-data-science-savvy
<p>Interactive Quiz - Are you Data Science Savvy?</p>
<p> </p>
<p> </p>
<iframe src="https://mathsgee.com/resources/wp-admin/admin-ajax.php?action=h5p_embed&id=79" width="660" height="340" frameborder="0" allowfullscreen="allowfullscreen" title="Are you Data Science Savvy?"></iframe><script src="https://mathsgee.com/resources/wp-content/plugins/h5p/h5p-php-library/js/h5p-resizer.js" charset="UTF-8"></script>Data Science & Statisticshttps://mathsgee.com/36132/interactive-quiz-are-you-data-science-savvyMon, 17 Jan 2022 11:32:12 +0000Interactive Quiz - How well do you know data science strategy?
https://mathsgee.com/36131/interactive-quiz-how-well-do-you-know-data-science-strategy
<p>Interactive Quiz - How well do you know data science strategy?</p>
<p> </p>
<p> </p>
<iframe src="https://mathsgee.com/resources/wp-admin/admin-ajax.php?action=h5p_embed&id=78" width="660" height="395" frameborder="0" allowfullscreen="allowfullscreen" title="Data Science Strategy Quiz"></iframe><script src="https://mathsgee.com/resources/wp-content/plugins/h5p/h5p-php-library/js/h5p-resizer.js" charset="UTF-8"></script>Data Science & Statisticshttps://mathsgee.com/36131/interactive-quiz-how-well-do-you-know-data-science-strategyMon, 17 Jan 2022 11:25:53 +0000Interactive Quiz - How well do you know data handling concepts?
https://mathsgee.com/36127/interactive-quiz-how-well-do-you-know-data-handling-concepts
<p>Interactive Quiz - How well do you know data handling concepts?</p>
<p> </p>
<p> </p>
<iframe src="https://mathsgee.com/resources/wp-admin/admin-ajax.php?action=h5p_embed&id=74" width="660" height="270" frameborder="0" allowfullscreen="allowfullscreen" title="Data Handling"></iframe><script src="https://mathsgee.com/resources/wp-content/plugins/h5p/h5p-php-library/js/h5p-resizer.js" charset="UTF-8"></script>Data Science & Statisticshttps://mathsgee.com/36127/interactive-quiz-how-well-do-you-know-data-handling-conceptsMon, 17 Jan 2022 10:44:54 +0000Answered: How is KNN different from k-means clustering?
https://mathsgee.com/16886/how-is-knn-different-from-k-means-clustering?show=36112#a36112
KNN is a classification algorithm which falls under the greedy techniques however k-means is a clustering algorithm (unsupervised machine learning technique).<br />
<br />
KNN is concerned with using the classes of neighbours as a basis for classification while k-means uses the mean value of a set of neighbouring records as a basis for clustering.Data Science & Statisticshttps://mathsgee.com/16886/how-is-knn-different-from-k-means-clustering?show=36112#a36112Mon, 17 Jan 2022 07:03:37 +0000Answered: A coin is tossed 3 times. What is the probability that the tosses are the same?
https://mathsgee.com/36054/coin-tossed-times-what-the-probability-that-the-tosses-same?show=36055#a36055
There are \(2^3=8\) possible outcomes after tossing a fair coin fairly 3 times. The 8 possible outcomes are: TTT, HTT, THT, TTH, HHT, HTH, THH, HHH. Exactly 2 of 8 possible outcomes result in \(\mathbf{3}\) of the same faces showing up. They are TTT and HHH. Each has a probability of \(\dfrac{1}{8}\) of happening and since either showing up satisfactorily addresses the criterion for success, the probability as requested \(=2 \times (\dfrac{1}{8})=\dfrac{1}{4}=.25\) \(=25 \%\).Data Science & Statisticshttps://mathsgee.com/36054/coin-tossed-times-what-the-probability-that-the-tosses-same?show=36055#a36055Sun, 16 Jan 2022 05:29:47 +0000Answered: Suppose a coin is tossed 3 times. What is the probability of obtaining exactly one head?
https://mathsgee.com/36052/suppose-coin-tossed-times-what-probability-obtaining-exactly?show=36053#a36053
P(One head exactly) \(=\dfrac{1}{2} \times \dfrac{1}{2} \times \dfrac{1}{2} \times \dfrac{3}{8} \)<br />
<br />
The first \(\dfrac{1}{2} \) is the probability of getting a head. The other two halfs are the probability of NOT getting a head. The 3 is because the head could appear on either the first OR second OR third throw.Data Science & Statisticshttps://mathsgee.com/36052/suppose-coin-tossed-times-what-probability-obtaining-exactly?show=36053#a36053Sun, 16 Jan 2022 05:27:09 +0000Answered: You get curl: (56) TCP connection reset by peer. What steps will you take to solve this problem?
https://mathsgee.com/2857/connection-reset-peer-what-steps-will-take-solve-this-problem?show=36025#a36025
<h2>Introduction</h2>
<p>The remote server has sent you a RST packet, which indicates an immediate dropping of the connection, rather than the usual handshake.</p>
<h2>Possible Causes</h2>
<p>A. <strong>TCP/IP</strong></p>
<p>It might be a TCP/IP issue you need to resolve with your host or upgrade your OS most times connection is closed with remote server before it finished downloading the content resulting in <code>Connection reset by peer</code>.....</p>
<p>B. <strong>Kernel Bug</strong></p>
<p>Note that there are some issues with TCP window scaling on some Linux kernels after v2.6.17. See the following bug reports for more information:</p>
<p><a href="https://bugs.launchpad.net/ubuntu/+source/linux-source-2.6.17/+bug/59331" rel="nofollow noreferrer">https://bugs.launchpad.net/ubuntu/+source/linux-source-2.6.17/+bug/59331</a></p>
<p><a href="https://bugs.launchpad.net/ubuntu/+source/linux-source-2.6.20/+bug/89160" rel="nofollow noreferrer">https://bugs.launchpad.net/ubuntu/+source/linux-source-2.6.20/+bug/89160</a></p>
<p>C. <strong>PHP & CURL Bug</strong></p>
<p>You are using <code>PHP/5.3.3</code> which has some serious bugs too ... I would advise you to work with a more recent version of <code>PHP</code> and <code>CURL</code></p>
<p><a href="https://bugs.php.net/bug.php?id=52828" rel="nofollow noreferrer">https://bugs.php.net/bug.php?id=52828</a></p>
<p><a href="https://bugs.php.net/bug.php?id=52827" rel="nofollow noreferrer">https://bugs.php.net/bug.php?id=52827</a></p>
<p><a href="https://bugs.php.net/bug.php?id=52202" rel="nofollow noreferrer">https://bugs.php.net/bug.php?id=52202</a></p>
<p><a href="https://bugs.php.net/bug.php?id=50410" rel="nofollow noreferrer">https://bugs.php.net/bug.php?id=50410</a></p>
<p>D. <strong>Maximum Transmission Unit</strong></p>
<p>One common cause of this error is that the MTU (Maximum Transmission Unit) size of packets travelling over your network connection has been changed from the default of 1500 bytes. If you have configured a <code>VPN</code> this most likely must changed during configuration</p>
<p>D. <strong>Firewall: iptables</strong></p>
<p>If you don't know your way around these guys they can cause some serious issues .. try and access the server you are connecting to check the following</p>
<ul>
<li>You have access to port 80 on that server</li>
</ul>
<p>Example</p>
<pre>
<code> -A RH-Firewall-1-INPUT -m state --state NEW -m tcp -p tcp --dport 80 -j ACCEPT`
</code></pre>
<ul>
<li>The Following is at the last line not before any other ACCEPT</li>
</ul>
<p>Example</p>
<pre>
<code> -A RH-Firewall-1-INPUT -j REJECT --reject-with icmp-host-prohibited
</code></pre>
<ul>
<li>
<p>Check for ALL DROP, REJECT and make sure they are not blocking your connection</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>Temporary allow all connection as see if it foes through</p>
</li>
</ul>
<h2>Experiment</h2>
<p>Try on a different server or on a remote server ( So many free cloud hosting online) and test the same script. If it works then my guesses are correct ... <code>You need to update your system</code></p>
<h2>Others Code Related</h2>
<p>A. <strong>SSL</strong></p>
<p>If <code>Yii::app()->params['pdfUrl']</code> is a url with <code>https</code> not including proper SSL settings can also cause this error in old version of curl</p>
<p>Resolution: Make sure OpenSSL is installed and enabled then add this to your code</p>
<pre>
<code>curl_setopt($c, CURLOPT_SSL_VERIFYPEER, false);
curl_setopt($c, CURLOPT_SSL_VERIFYHOST, false);</code></pre>Data Science & Statisticshttps://mathsgee.com/2857/connection-reset-peer-what-steps-will-take-solve-this-problem?show=36025#a36025Sun, 16 Jan 2022 01:27:35 +0000Answered: Which one of the following refers to using two or more sources of data or multiple data collection methods within one study?
https://mathsgee.com/33516/following-refers-sources-multiple-collection-methods-within?show=36022#a36022
<p><strong>Mixed Method</strong></p>
<p> </p>
<p>Mixed method research design is when a researcher uses two or more sources of data or multiple data collection methods within one study.</p>
<p>It is formally defined as a procedure for collecting, analyzing, and "mixing" both quantitative and qualitative research and methods in a single study to understand a research problem.</p>
<p> </p>
<p> </p>Data Science & Statisticshttps://mathsgee.com/33516/following-refers-sources-multiple-collection-methods-within?show=36022#a36022Sun, 16 Jan 2022 01:01:16 +0000Answered: What are the two types of numerical data?
https://mathsgee.com/36019/what-are-the-two-types-of-numerical-data?show=36020#a36020
Numerical data can take 2 different forms, namely; discrete data, which represents countable items and continuous data, which represents data measurement. The continuous type of numerical data is further subdivided into interval and ratio data, which is known to be used for measuring items.Data Science & Statisticshttps://mathsgee.com/36019/what-are-the-two-types-of-numerical-data?show=36020#a36020Sat, 15 Jan 2022 04:52:55 +0000Answered: What are 4 types of data?
https://mathsgee.com/36017/what-are-4-types-of-data?show=36018#a36018
In statistics, there are four data measurement scales: nominal, ordinal, interval and ratio. These are simply ways to sub-categorize different types of data (here's an overview of statistical data types).Data Science & Statisticshttps://mathsgee.com/36017/what-are-4-types-of-data?show=36018#a36018Sat, 15 Jan 2022 04:52:09 +0000Answered: What is categorical and numerical data?
https://mathsgee.com/36015/what-is-categorical-and-numerical-data?show=36016#a36016
Categorical data is a type of data that is used to group information with similar characteristics while Numerical data is a type of data that expresses information in the form of numbers.Data Science & Statisticshttps://mathsgee.com/36015/what-is-categorical-and-numerical-data?show=36016#a36016Sat, 15 Jan 2022 04:51:26 +0000Answered: Is zip code a categorical variable?
https://mathsgee.com/36013/is-zip-code-a-categorical-variable?show=36014#a36014
Data are generally recorded values of variables.... Some variables, such as social security numbers and zip codes, take numerical values, but are not quantitative: They are qualitative or categorical variables. The sum of two zip codes or social security numbers is not meaningful.Data Science & Statisticshttps://mathsgee.com/36013/is-zip-code-a-categorical-variable?show=36014#a36014Sat, 15 Jan 2022 04:50:22 +0000Answered: Is weight categorical or quantitative?
https://mathsgee.com/36011/is-weight-categorical-or-quantitative?show=36012#a36012
Quantitative variables are any variables where the data represent amounts (e.g. height, weight, or age).<br />
Categorical variables are any variables where the data represent groups.Data Science & Statisticshttps://mathsgee.com/36011/is-weight-categorical-or-quantitative?show=36012#a36012Sat, 15 Jan 2022 04:49:27 +0000Answered: What do you mean by categorical data?
https://mathsgee.com/36009/what-do-you-mean-by-categorical-data?show=36010#a36010
1 : absolute, unqualified a categorical denial. \(2 a\) : of, relating to, or constituting a category. \(b\) : involving, according with, or considered with respect to specific categories a categorical system for classifying books.Data Science & Statisticshttps://mathsgee.com/36009/what-do-you-mean-by-categorical-data?show=36010#a36010Sat, 15 Jan 2022 04:48:19 +0000Answered: Is categorical data discrete?
https://mathsgee.com/36007/is-categorical-data-discrete?show=36008#a36008
Discrete data arise from observations that can only take certain numerical values, usually counts such as number of children or number of patients attending a clinic in a year. Ordered categorical data are sometimes treated as discrete data, this is wrong.Data Science & Statisticshttps://mathsgee.com/36007/is-categorical-data-discrete?show=36008#a36008Sat, 15 Jan 2022 04:47:27 +0000Answered: Is categorical data ordinal?
https://mathsgee.com/36005/is-categorical-data-ordinal?show=36006#a36006
Categorical variables are those that have discrete categories or levels. Categorical variables can be further defined as nominal, dichotomous, or ordinal. Nominal variables describe categories that do not have a specific order to them.... Ordinal variables have two are more categories that can be ordered or ranked.Data Science & Statisticshttps://mathsgee.com/36005/is-categorical-data-ordinal?show=36006#a36006Sat, 15 Jan 2022 04:46:44 +0000Answered: Is categorical data the same as qualitative?
https://mathsgee.com/36003/is-categorical-data-the-same-as-qualitative?show=36004#a36004
Qualitative data contains categorical variables and quantitative data contains numerical variables. Categorical variables come in nominal or ordinal flavours, whereas numerical variables can be discrete or continuous.Data Science & Statisticshttps://mathsgee.com/36003/is-categorical-data-the-same-as-qualitative?show=36004#a36004Sat, 15 Jan 2022 04:45:51 +0000Answered: What is Categorical Data?
https://mathsgee.com/36001/what-is-categorical-data?show=36002#a36002
<p><img alt="categorical data" src="https://mathsgee.com/?qa=blob&qa_blobid=6357467835581007149" style="height:206px; width:600px"></p>
<p> </p>
<p>Categorical data is a collection of information that is divided into groups. I.e, if an organisation or agency is trying to get a biodata of its employees, the resulting data is referred to as categorical. This data is called categorical because it may be grouped according to the variables present in the biodata such as sex, state of residence, etc.</p>
<p>
<br>
Categorical data can take on numerical values (such as "1" indicating Yes and " 2 " indicating No), but those numbers don't have mathematical meaning. One can neither add them together nor subtract them from each other.</p>
<p> </p>Data Science & Statisticshttps://mathsgee.com/36001/what-is-categorical-data?show=36002#a36002Sat, 15 Jan 2022 04:44:22 +0000Answered: Do I need to know Optimization and Operation Research Topics for data science?
https://mathsgee.com/35964/need-know-optimization-operation-research-topics-science?show=35965#a35965
<p>These topics are most relevant in specialized fields like theoretical computer science, control theory, or operation research. But a basic understanding of these powerful techniques can also be fruitful in the practice of machine learning. Virtually every machine-learning algorithm aims to minimize some kind of estimation error subject to various constraints-which is an optimization problem. Here are the topics to learn:
<br>
- Basics of optimization, how to formulate the problem
<br>
- Maxima, minima, convex function, global solution
<br>
- Linear programming, simplex algorithm
<br>
- Integer programming
<br>
- Constraint programming, knapsack problem
<br>
- Randomized optimization techniques: hill climbing, simulated annealing, genetic algorithms</p>
<p> </p>
<p><strong>Where You Might Use It</strong>
<br>
Simple linear regression problems using least-square loss function often have an exact analytical solution, but logistic regression problems don't. To understand the reason, you need to be familiar with the concept of "convexity" in optimization. This line of investigation will also illuminate why we must remain satisfied with "approximate" solutions in most machine-learning problems.</p>Data Science & Statisticshttps://mathsgee.com/35964/need-know-optimization-operation-research-topics-science?show=35965#a35965Sat, 15 Jan 2022 03:33:26 +0000