According to the World Bank (1994) “Participation is a process through which stakeholders influence development initiatives, decisions and resources concerning them on which they have a right to supervise”. Participation is an approach whereby all stakeholders are equitably and actively involved in the formulation of development policies and strategies as well as the analysis, planning, implementation, control and evaluation of development activities. Participation of stakeholders is the association into a single process, a procedure. There are eight main modes of association of the public, classified from the less participative to more participative.
information: action of giving information (unilaterally, one way)
consultation: action of soliciting a view
consensus-building: action of exchanging views and looking for a compromise
dialogue: action of exchanging views and proposals
involvement: action of getting involved in a process or engaging one‟s responsibility in it
participation: action of actively associating oneself with a process
appropriation: action of assuming ownership as a stakeholder
approval: action of allying oneself with or fully sharing objectives.