1. Reusing waste materials for other purposes, e.g. using waste vegetables and fruits for composting into manure.
2. Making other essential products from recyclable materials, e.g. making toy cars from old metal cans, bottle caps and wires.
3. Rather than throwing away goods (e.g. old clothes, shoes) that you no longer use, give them to people who need them and will use them or sell them to people who need them.
4. Rather than buying new goods such as electricals, tools, mechanicals, electronics, cars and cameras, buy used or second-hand goods. Usually, these are cheaper and working alternatives.
5. Instead of replacing goods that are damaged or not working, have them repaired. This applies to some electrical, mechanical and electronic goods.