MathsGee QnA Book
This book is composed of all questions at MathsGee QnA, ordered by date, sorted by categories, including their answers that received the most upvotes.

Questions without qualifying answers are not included herein.

The book was created programatically by MathsGee QnA on Aug 18, 2019.
Table of Contents

  How come most African youths don't know about #Agenda2063 aspirations?

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Here is my response to the question. I did a quick podcast for it. Enjoy, any feedback is welcome.

https://youtu.be/75D0SEi8sPM

 

You can also listen on:

https://podcasts.apple.com/za/podcast/do-most-african-youths-know-about-african-union-agenda2063/id1441846765?i=1000434833390

or 

https://tedsf.org/podcasts/human-development-zone-podcast-with-edzai-zvobwo/

 

-- name
Who started this #Agenda2063 QnA ?
As an ambassador of the African Union Development Agency (formely NEPAD) , I decided to use the vehicles at my disposal to promote #Agenda2063 in contribution to #TheAfricaWeWant - I believe we have to interrogate every aspect of the initiative to make it a success. People have to have a forum to vent, brainstorm and understand what the African Union is doing to make sure that Africa becomes prosperous.
-- name

Can Africa create 1 Million new jobs for youth by 2021?

Call-to-Action: Launch of the “1 Million by 2021 Initiative” at the Pan African Youth Forum: The Chairperson of the #AfricanUnionCommission (#AUC), H.E. #MoussaFakiMahamat will launch the “1 million by 2021 Initiative”, which targets direct #investments in millions of #Africanyouth on four key elements of #Employment, #Entrepreneurship, #Education and #Engagement, through leveraging #partnerships and private sector opportunities. The #initiative will be launched through a #PanAfrican Youth Forum themed “#Africa Unite for Youth: Bridging the Gap and Reaching African Youth”. Young people make up the bulk of Africa’s total #population with an estimated 75% of the continent’s #population below the age of 35. From a #demographic point of view, this calls for a paradigm shift towards the recognition and support of the youth to harness their potential by building capacity for quality #education and #skills improvement, health and well-being, #goodgovernance, #humanrights and accountability, employment opportunities, #leadership skills, #empowerment and entrepreneurship. https://au.int/en/newsevents/20190424/launch-1-million-2021-initiative-pan-african-youth-forum

There needs to be a change in attitude from the old people in power. As long as they don't change their long decision cycles and poor implementation of policies then we will not get anywhere. This is a large number so needs proper execution from office bearers and all the support should be given to them by everyone.
-- Anonymous

Does anybody know what is the theme for the 2019 Africa Day celebrations?

 

On 25 May 1963, Africa made history with the foundation of the Organisation of African Unity (OAU) the precursor to the African Union (AU).

Africa Day is intended to celebrate and acknowledge the successes of the Organisation of African Unity (OAU now the AU) from its creation in May 25, 1963 in the fight against colonialism and apartheid, as well as the progress that Africa has made, while reflecting upon the common challenges that the continent face in a global environment.

Happy-Africa-Day-African

The theme for 2019 Day commemoration is “Healthy Lifestyle Prolongs Life”. This theme has been selected to emphasize the significant relationship between unhealthy lifestyle and premature mortality. The theme is in line with Aspiration 1 of the Agenda 2063 which is “A prosperous Africa, based on inclusive growth and sustainable development”.

-- Eddie
*A high standard of living, quality of life and wellbeing for all citizens *Well educated citizens and skills revolution underpinned by science, technology and innovation *Healthy and well-nourished citizens *A United Africa (Federal or Confederate) *A peaceful and secure Africa *Engaged and empowered youth and children *Full gender equality in all spheres of life
I believe that there is a lot to be done to get as many people fired up for #Agenda2063 as possible. Member countries are supposed to spearhead this and carry the message of the African Union to their people but it doesnt seem to be the case.

Youth formations are our only hope, we have to get as many youth group to start advocating for change in the way the AU operates. I can tell you that among all my friends no one knows about Agenda2063 and these are educated cosmopolitan Africans. More can be done from the AU side.
-- Eddie
The African Union has done the necessary research and empowered member countries with enough information to promote and adopt the agreed upon aspirations. We all have a part to play to make sure we achieve our goals.
-- name

What is GEN Africa #22OnSloane doing in contribution to to Africa's #Agenda2063 aspirations?

https://www.22onsloane.co/

 

"African entrepreneurs should be given a prime attention on the agenda of Africa’s development. Those that develop market-worthy ideas should be given the opportunity to test them with their peers in other African countries and collaborate with them towards making their ideas a reality" - Kizito Okechukwu.

GEN Africa 22 ON SLOANE is working towards 'powering the next generation of African entrepreneurs' by offering disruptive startups and innovative SMEs a complete turnkey solution to scale, from the initial idea all the way to commercialisation, funding opportunities and access to markets. Its aim is to nurture the entrepreneurial mindset, ensure their sustainability, and explore development of new industries and contribute towards job creation in Africa.

 

 

-- Anonymous

Will Money Solve Africa's Development Problems?

Money is definitely an important component in solving Africa's development problems but it is not the only one and one can argue that it is not the most important.

The conditions for sustainable development should be in place in order to make sure that when money does come in fundamentals like accountability, efficiency, ease of doing business, regional integration are already in place.

Money is needed for infrastructure financing but can only be effective if the right environment prevails.

The African Union through AUDA-NEPAD has setup measure for Africans to self-evaluate and make sure that we account and implement resolutions made at the AUC.
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What is APRM?

https://youtu.be/cdRAIQYWqTg
The African Peer Review Mechanism (APRM) is an instrument voluntarily acceded to by African Union member states meant to function as an African self-monitoring mechanism. Its primary purpose is to foster the adoption of appropriate laws, policies, standards and practices that lead to political stability, high economic growth, sustainable development, and accelerated sub-regional and continental economic integration. This goal is achieved through sharing of experiences, reinforcement of successful and best practice, as well as identifying deficiencies and assessing the needs for capacity building.
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How does APRM judge countries?

https://youtu.be/P3yoIw5ESkc
The APR process is designed so that countries at different levels of development and governance can join-countries will not be judged against a hard pass-fail system. Rather, the review intends to candidly assess the country’s biggest problems, identify needed actions and secure commitments from the country under review for fixing those problems.
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What are the APRM objectives, standards and codes, questions and indicators?
To measure performance and progress, key objectives, standards, criteria and indicators have been identified in the four key areas of review: Democracy and Political Governance, Economic Governance and Management, Corporate Governance, and Socio-Economic Development. The objectives define the essential elements of the overall goal that must be achieved in a measurable way. The standards and codes are those approved by African countries, individually or collectively, with regard to ‘how’ they govern themselves and manage their societies, economies and socio-economic development. The standards and codes are meant to give guidance and reference. Countries will not be marked against whether they adhere to these or not, instead the purpose is to ascertain their familiarity with these standards and codes, and the extent of their application. The questions serve to focus on what the country has done with regard to the objectives and the codes, how it does it and with what results. The indicators are the type of evidence that is expected in the responses of countries. They serve to highlight aspects of the objective, standard or code that are generally recognised as measures of performance
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The following UN definitions should be adopted when completing the table of standards and codes:

• Accede is an act by which a State signifies its agreement to be legally bound by the terms of a particular treaty or convention. It has the same legal effect as ratification (see below), but is not preceded by an act of signature.

• Adoption is the formal act by which the form and content of a proposed treaty or convention text are established, usually by way of a resolution of a representative organ

• Enacted or Entry into Force. This occurs at a specified date and time following ratification of the treaty or convention and is usually set out in the national legislative requirements relating to that treaty or convention

• Ratification is an act by which a State signifies an agreement to be legally bound by the terms of a particular treaty or convention. It usually does this through following national constitutional procedures e.g. Parliament, Head of State or a combination and making a formal decision to be a party to the treaty or convention

• Signature of a treaty or convention is an act by which a State provides a preliminary endorsement of the treaty or convention. It does not create a legally binding obligation but does demonstrate the State‟s intent to examine the treaty or convention domestically and consider ratifying it.
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What are the stages of the  APRM review process?
The APR process follows five broad phases: Stage one begins with an initial consultation between the APR Secretariat and the country to be reviewed. This consultation should provide an overview of the process and work out the terms of a memorandum of understanding governing the review. The country under review is required to create an APR Focal Point to co-ordinate with the APR Secretariat. The 2004 Kigali meeting of the APR heads of state also adopted recommendations that “participating countries immediately take steps to identify or establish broad-based and all-inclusive APRM National Coordinating Structures where they do not already exist.” This structure would be responsible for sending the Self-Assessment Questionnaire to a wide variety of stakeholders. Once its structures are in place, the APR Secretariat and the country under review simultaneously (but independently) compile preliminary documents. The APR Secretariat must prepare a background document assessing the country to be reviewed, drawing on up-to-date
information from national, sub-regional, regional and international organisations. The APR Secretariat also prepares a document outlining the nation’s major issues. For this work, the APR Secretariat will require the country focal point to gather relevant laws, treaty ratifications, budgets and development plans and forward them to the APR Secretariat. At the same time, the country must complete the APR self-assessment questionnaire and gather broad input from civil society. In addition, the government must also draft a paper outlining the nation’s big issues and a National Programme of Action containing clear steps and deadlines for how the country intends to conform with APR codes and standards, the African Union Charter and UN obligations. (See Appendix A, List of APR Standards and Codes) Based on the above documents, the APR Secretariat then writes a report outlining the central issues upon which the review process will be focused. In stage two an expert team visits the country, meeting with government, business, academics, parliamentarians, the media and other members of civil society to assess the draft national Programme of Action. Team members are not permanent staff and are appointed only for work on a given country visit and report. The countryvisits last for a minimum of three weeks. The visiting team will consist of one member of the panel of eminent persons, one administrative person and four experts drawn from partner institutions, including the UN Development Programme, UN Economic Commission for Africa, the African Development Bank and African Union bodies. During stage three, the country review team drafts its report, sharing its findings with the government being assessed. Government responses are then appended to the team report and, if needed, the national Programme of Action is modified according to the team’s findings. The Panel of Eminent Persons takes over the process in stage four, writing recommendations for policy reforms based on the review team’s findings. The heads of state in the APR Forum then discuss the panel’s recommendations with the leader of the country under review. In stage five, which must be completed within six months of the start of the review, the final report is made public and tabled in the African Union, Pan-African Parliament, Peace and Security Council, Economic, Social and Cultural Council and other relevant bodies. The APR Secretariat also follows up on commitments made, holds regional workshops to share best practices identified in the reviews and offers technical support to assist countries in fulfilling their APR plans
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Which countries have signed up for APRM?
As of November 2013, 33 countries have signed up. These include Algeria, Angola, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chad, Djibouti, Egypt, Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mozambique, Niger, Nigeria, Republic of Congo, Rwanda, Sao Tome & Principe, Senegal, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda and Zambia. Of these 17 countries have completed their reviews. These include Ghana, Rwanda, Kenya, South Africa, Algeria, Benin, Uganda, Nigeria, Burkina Faso, Mali, Mozambique, Lesotho, Ethiopia, Sierra Leone, Zambia and Tanzania.
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What is the APRM Self-Assessment Questionnaire (SAQ)?
The APR questionnaire acts as a template and a guide to analysing governance. Countries can modify it if needed. It asks whether the country under review has ratified the designated treaties and codes, and whether they have taken the requisite steps to give such agreements legal force by adopting them into national law or setting up the required institutions and systems to give the treaties effect. The SAQ is
divided into four sections: Democracy and Good Political Governance, Economic Governance and Management, Corporate Governance, and Socio-Economic Governance. Each section includes a list of relevant standards, major objectives, questions under each objective and indicators, which help flesh out the intent of the questions.The SAQ was revised at the 17th APR Forum in Addis Ababa on 14 July 2012.
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Why should African countries participate in APRM reviews?

https://youtu.be/rU8B-XA3u9I
The potential benefits of the APRM will vary depending on the level of commitment of the participating country and the effectiveness with which the process is managed, including the degree of co-ordination with existing activities at the country level. By discussing policy challenges and options openly and thoroughly, the process can help build trust in the political system and identify and solve national problems that might otherwise be neglected. It gives Africa an opportunity to get its own houses in order and devise programmes of action to address deficiencies without Western conditionality. It also shows a commitment to improving governance and socio-economic development exists in specific countries and, more broadly, in the continent. A sincere review may also bring increased aid to support and implement envisioned Programmes of Action. Information sharing between countries will also increase trust and create opportunities for intra-country trade and investment, physical infrastructure, production systems and structures will also foster common African positions for negotiating with other regions.
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What are the origins of APRM?
The African Peer Review Mechanism grew out of the New Partnership for Africa’s Development and was formally launched by the African Union at its Durban Summit in 2002.
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How do citizens and organisations participate in APRM processes?
They must be involved in the process from the moment the country signs up and should be part of the initial planning processes. Citizens and organisations would be active in appointing a governing council and lobby to serve on such bodies. They should play a watch-dog role to ensure the integrity of the process. All groups must make official submissions which can be fed into the country self-assessment report and should use the media to publicise their view. They should also make attempts to attend events organised by the Country Support Mission and Review Team and engage with them.
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What is the APRM Secretariat and how does it work?
The secretariat is based in South Africa and provides secretarial, technical, coordinating and administrative support services for the African Peer Review Mechanism. The secretariat is funded by voluntary contributions from countries that have signed on to the process.
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How is APRM organised at a national level?
There is no absolute blueprint for implementing APRM at national level, and the first few countries undertaking the process have developed a variety of models. The APRM Guidelines stipulate that each participating country must have an APR Focal Point in government, to act as a liaison between the continental secretariat and the national APR structures. This focal point is usually a minister or senior civil servant. Participating countries and civil society have asked for more precise rules on the role of the focal point, the extent and type of public involvement required and how the process should be governed. The Eminent Persons have advised countries to form an inclusive panel or council that should contain a majority of civil society representatives and ideally be led by someone outside of government. This
council is responsible for producing a Country Self-Assessment Report (CSAR) and Programme of Action (POA) based on wide public consultation. It should take decisions on national and sub-national consultations on the self-assessment questionnaire, research for the report, advertising and publicity, and facilitating both country support and country review visits from the APRM Secretariat. Various countries have named the body a governing council or national commission. Mauritius assigned responsibility for the CSAR to an existing institution called the National Economic and Social Council to drive peer review at the country level and refers to the whole body as the APR Focal Point. Most countries have also established a small local APRM Secretariat to assist with administrative tasks.
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How is APRM funded?
Countries are supposed to make voluntary contributions to the APRM Secretariat and fund the cost of their own national reviews, either through their own resources or funds from donors. The United Nations Development Programme and other donors have contributed to the process in countries like Ghana, Kenya and Mauritius. South Africa funded the process from its own revenues.
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What is the APRM Forum?
The forum is the highest decision making body in the process and is composed of the Committee of Participating Heads of State and Government.
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What is the APRM Panel?
It consists of the Panel of Eminent Persons who are appointed to oversee the review process and ensure the integrity of the process, to consider review reports and to make recommendations to the APRM Forum.
-- name
What is the Country Review team?
This team made up of independent consultants and led by the Eminent Person responsible for a country’s review is responsible to produce the APRM report on the country and review progress on a country’s Programme of Action
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What is an APRM Country Support Mission?
Once a country has acceded to the APRM by signing the accession Memorandum of Understanding (MOU), the APR Secretariat will arrange a mission to the country with a view to negotiate the exact terms of the country review. During this visit the country and support mission sign a MOU on the Technical Assessment and Country Review visit. When the MOU between the APR Forum and the government is signed the stage is set for the APR process to start.
-- name
What does an APRM Country Review Visit consist of?
Each country review is led by a member of the Panel of Eminent persons. The review team includes experts from outside the country under review. To prepare for the review the APRM Secretariat prepares a background paper and a paper outlining the major issues in the country. These guide the in-country activities of the review team. In the first few countries, the review visit was about two weeks in duration. The South African review was 16 days. During the visit the review team is, according to the official guidance, meet with the widest possible range of government, officials, political parties, parliamentarians and representatives of civil society organisations including the media, academia, trade unions, business and professional bodies. The purpose is to glean different perspectives on governance in the country and to clarify matters identified in the Issues Paper not taken into account in the preliminary Programme of
Action of the country and to build consensus on how these could be addressed. After its visit, the review team produces the country review report. This draft report is first discussed with the country concerned to ensure the information is accurate, giving government both an opportunity to react to the findings and suggest solutions. If government disagrees with its findings or wishes to comment, it has the right to append comments to the report as an attachment. At this stage the country also finalises its Programme of Action, taking into account the conclusions and recommendations of the draft report. When this is complete, the report and programme of action are presented to the ARP Forum of heads of state for discussion.
-- name
When are the APRM country reports made public?
Six months after it has been considered by the Heads of State and Government of participating member countries. Civil society organisations have called for the self-assessment reports prepared by governments to be released to the public at the same time they are given to the Country Review Mission, but several governments have been reluctant to do so.
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How are the APRM reports made public?
The report will be publicly tabled in key regional and sub-regional structures including the Regional Economic Commission to which the country belongs, the Pan-African Parliament, the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights, the envisaged Peace and Security Council and the Economic Social and Cultural Council (ECOSOCC) of the African Union
-- name
Who do we contact at the APRM Secretariat?
To find out more about the APRM in your country, contact the Secretariat in South Africa at +27 (011) 256 3401 or alternatively contact SAIIA on +27(011) 339 2021
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Where is the 2019 APRM International Youth Symposium taking place ?
The APRM will host its inaugural International Youth Symposium from the 1st to the 2nd of July 2019 in N’djamena, Chad. The symposium will be under the patronage of His Excellency Idriss Deby Itno, the President of Chad.
-- name
What are the Guidelines for Countries to Prepare for and to Participate in the APRM?
According to the Guidelines to prepare for and to participate in the APRM, following accession to the APRM, countries are required to designate a Focal Point; to establish a National Governing Council comprised of all key stakeholders; and to allocate a budget for the APRM process. Only once this has been done will the country review process for the country be launched.

At this time the Country Self Assessment Questionnaire is sent to the country. As technical soundness is a key underpinning principle of the APRM, the NGC should appoint national research institutions to assist with the execution of the questionnaire. It is preferred that at least one institution be appointed for each thematic area. National institutions are recommended so as to build capacity and promote national ownership.
-- name
What is the APRM's definition of youth?
Persons between the ages of 15 and 35 years
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How does the APRM define Vulnerable Groups ?
Groups who are at a particular risk of maltreatment or exclusion from the political process, such as children, the youth, the aged, women, persons with disabilities, indigenous populations, ethnic minorities, migrant workers, and the poor
-- name
What does APRM define unitary boards as?
(also known as one-tier boards) are single boards comprising both executive and nonexecutive members. They are common in most commonwealth countries
-- name
Accoring to the APRM, what are Two Tier Boards?
Most common in countries in Europe such as France, Germany and The Netherlands. They comprise of a Supervisory Board made up of non-executive members and a management board made up of executive members. The CEO chairs the management board.
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What are Traditional Authorities  accoring to APRM?
Leaders whose authority stems from historical custom, most notably chiefs or elders.
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What is sustainable development?
Sustainable Development means that economic growth and expanded opportunities to create wealth generate employment and raise living standards are achieved without excessive costs to the environment, to the economic fundamentals or to the population; and that this growth can continue in the long term. In short "meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs."
-- name
#APRM - What is a Sub-national government or authority?
Levels of government below the national sphere, whether provincial, state, regional, district or local/municipal
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What are state owned enterprises (SOEs)?
Have a distinct legal form and are established usually by government to operate in commercial affairs. While they may also have public policy objectives, SOEs should be differentiated from other forms of government agencies or state entities (Parastatals) established to pursue purely non-financial objectives. They should produce a return on investment to government either through share price increase or dividends. SOEs can be fully owned or partially owned by Government (>50% of shares).
-- name
Who are the stake holders involved in the APRM coutry review process?
In a more general framework, Agenda 21 considers commitment and real participation of all social groups as a condition of sustainable development. Section III of Agenda 21, which concerns strengthening of the role of major groups presents the list: women, children and young people, native population communities, non-governmental organizations, local communities, workers and their unions, trade and industry, scientific and technical community, farmers
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What are social inequalities?
Social inequalities designate the different treatments that may be to the advantage of a social class, a group or an individual in relation to others and which establish status hierarchies. The differences associated with origins (social classes, country, culture), level of education, sex, age, colour of the skin, physical appearance, religious practices... are taken into account by sociologists for their contributions to economic inequalities (incomes, unemployment...). These inequalities may be explained and assumed (level of education for access to post of responsibility) or implicit (inequality between salaries of men and women)
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What is social protection?
A range of political, legal, social, environmental and economic interventions aimed at supporting individuals, families and communities in their efforts to manage the risks confronting them with a view to reducing their vulnerability and achieving greater social equity.
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What is Separation of Powers?
The assignment of different powers (legislative, executive, judicial) to distinct branches of government to protect liberty
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What are segments accorng to APRM?
Refer to the different types of activity within the economy e.g. manufacturing, service delivery etc.
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What are sectoral policies?
Policies applicable to a specific sector of the economy
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What are sanctions?
Actions taken against organizations for non-compliance with a particular law, regulation, standard or code, such as but not limited to, warnings, fines, suspension of trading, public reprimand, restatements, civil penalties, criminal penalties. Where evidence of sanctions is requested it should be provided for the last 5 years
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What are Remittances?
These refer to transfers of monies into the national economy, normally from various sources, but mainly from citizens resident or working in other countries.
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What are Related Parties and Related Party Transactions ?
Reference is made to the definition of related parties and related party transactions in International Accounting Standard 24. A related party is:

(a) a member of the Board or of the key management personnel of the organisation;

(b) any other person that significantly controls or influences the organisation;

(c) any close member of the family (such as the individual's domestic partner and children, children of the individual's domestic partner and other dependants of the individual or of the individual's domestic partner) of any individual referred to in (a) or (b);

(d) any entity controlled or significantly influenced by the organisation or by any individual referred to in (a) or (b); (e) any entity under joint control with the organisation;

(f) any entity that significantly controls or influences the organisation. A related party transaction shall be understood as a transfer of resources, services or obligations between related parties and the organisation, regardless of whether a price is charged.

This includes among others: purchases or sales of goods, property and other assets; rendering or receiving of services; leases; transfers of research and development; transfers under licence agreements; financial arrangements (including loans and equity contributions in cash or in kind); provision of guarantees or collateral; commitments to do something if a particular event occurs or does not occur in the future, including executory contracts; etc.
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What is Regional integration ?
Agreements and arrangements that allow for neighbouring or nearby countries to harmonise various national systems (political, economic, commercial, banking, etc) and reap greater economic benefits
-- name
Who is a refugee?
Persons who, owing to well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion, is outside the country of his nationality and is unable or, owing to such fear, unwilling to avail himself of the protection of that country or to return to it or who is obliged to seek refuge in a place outside his country of origin or nationality owing to external aggression or events disturbing public order in either part or the whole of his country,
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What is Ratification and which countries have ratified the APRM instrument?
Ratification defines the international act whereby a state indicates its consent to be bound to a treaty if the parties intended to show their consent by such an act. In the case of bilateral treaties, ratification is usually accomplished by exchanging the requisite instruments, while in the case of multilateral treaties the usual procedure is for the depositary to collect the ratifications of all states, keeping all parties informed of the situation. The institution of ratification grants states the necessary time-frame to seek the required approval for the treaty on the domestic level and to enact the necessary legislation to give domestic effect to that treaty.
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What is Public sector?
Sometimes referred to as the state sector, is a part of the state that deals with the production, delivery and allocation of goods and services by and for the government or its citizens, whether national, regional or local/municipal. It includes State Owned Enterprises, Parastatals and Public Authorities or Commissions;
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What is Public finance management?
The proper use and deployment of state revenues funding
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What is a Public Commission ?
A body, in the public sector, that regulates the rates and services of a utility or carries out an investigation into a defined matter on behalf of the government.
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Who are Public Authorities ?
Organizations in the public sector that takes on roles, such as the maintenance of public infrastructure. They often have broad powers to regulate or maintain public property.
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What is private sector?
That part of the economy which is both run for private profit and is not controlled by the state. It includes family owned businesses, private companies, Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises, as well as the informal sector;
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What are the Principles of sustainable human development?

There are 5 key terms, all of which have an impact on the life of poor and vulnerable people:

- Accountability: extension of the capacities and options offered to men and women increases their ability to make choices without suffering hunger, shortages and deprivations, while improving their possibility to participate in decision-making on issues that have an impact on their life or approve the decisions taken.

-Cooperation: since the sense of belonging is important for personal well-being, welfare and sense of responsibility and action, broad-based and sustainable socio-economic development is interested in the means that allow population groups to work together in a concerted manner.

-Equity: the extension of abilities and opportunities is not limited to incomes, it is an issue of equity, for example, and educational system to which everybody should have access.

-Sustainability: it is advisable to cover the needs of the present generation without compromising the right of future generations to be sheltered from poverty and destitution and to take advantage of their basic abilities.

-Security: security of livelihoods, in particular. Individuals should be sheltered from threats, such as diseases or repressions as well as abrupt disruptions of their life, which are harmful. UNDP focuses on four critical aspects of broad-based and sustainable socio-economic development: elimination of poverty, creation of jobs and livelihoods, protection and regeneration of the environment and promotion of women. The strengthening of capacities for purposes of good governance supports all these objectives.

-- name
What is Price sensitive information?
Undisclosed information that, if made generally known, would be likely to have an effect on the share price of the company concerned.
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What is Participation  for APRM?

According to the World Bank (1994) “Participation is a process through which stakeholders influence development initiatives, decisions and resources concerning them on which they have a right to supervise”. Participation is an approach whereby all stakeholders are equitably and actively involved in the formulation of development policies and strategies as well as the analysis, planning, implementation, control and evaluation of development activities. Participation of stakeholders is the association into a single process, a procedure. There are eight main modes of association of the public, classified from the less participative to more participative.

information: action of giving information (unilaterally, one way)

consultation: action of soliciting a view

consensus-building: action of exchanging views and looking for a compromise

dialogue: action of exchanging views and proposals

involvement: action of getting involved in a process or engaging one‟s responsibility in it

participation: action of actively associating oneself with a process

appropriation: action of assuming ownership as a stakeholder

approval: action of allying oneself with or fully sharing objectives.

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What is an organization?
A person or group of people intentionally organized to accomplish an overall, common goal or set of goals which can be for profit or not-for profit, they can be incorporated or nonincorporated, and can be established in the public, private or not-for-profit sectors.
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What is Not for Profit Sector ?
That part of the economy where organizations are for non-profit and non-governmental. This sector is also called the third sector, in reference to the private sector and the public sector, or the Civic sector emphasizing the sector's relationship to civil society. It includes NonGovernmental Organizations, Community Based Organizations, Umbrella bodies, faith based organizations, apex bodies and other related organizations.
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What are Non-Governmental Actors?
These are main structures of the society outside government and public administration. These structures are born out of the will of the citizens, their objective being the promotion of an issue or defending a general or specific interest.

They are independent of the State. For their participation, non-governmental actors may be selected on the basis of criteria taking into account, in particular: - Diversity (to ensure representation of the different families of non-state actors). - The need to ensure representation of actors considered as marginal (women and disabled persons in particular). - Representation of the different levels: collective and consortium.... - Visibility and accessibility of the organizations selected (because they have a functional headquarters, equipped with telephone and/or Internet, etc... facilities). - Comparative advantage in a determined area of activity.
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What are Non- Executive Directors/Members of the Board?
Members of the Board who are not involved in the day to day management of the organization and do not have a contract of employment with the organization.
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What are Net foreign assets?
The total value of assets that the country owns abroad, minus assets owned by foreigners (domestically) in the country
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What is Money laundering ?
The practice or act of converting funding acquired by crime or other illegal means into legitimate currency
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What are Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) ?
Businesses below a certain threshold (usually turnover or headcount)
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What is Micro finance?
The provision of financial services and small amounts of funding for entrepreneurs or small projects
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Wha are Members of a Board ?
Members of the governing body (Board, Council, governing body etc) of an organization e.g. directors of incorporated companies.
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What are International arbitration instruments?
Means and systems for settling disputes between countries, or among corporations across national borders
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What are Internally Displaced Persons ?
Persons or groups of persons who have been forced or obliged to flee or to leave their homes or places of habitual residence, in particular as a result of or in order to avoid the effects of armed conflict, situations of generalized violence, violation of human rights or natural or human-made disasters, and who have not crossed an internationally recognized State border
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What are Internal and external economic shocks?
Unanticipated events originating within or without the country that adversely effect the economy
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What is insider trading?
Trading in the shares of a company by an individual who has knowledge of undisclosed „price sensitive information‟ that comes from an inside source.
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What is Informal Sector ?
Economic activity that is neither taxed nor monitored by a government, and is not included in that government's Gross National Product. It has been suggested that within many African countries more than 50% of the labour force is employed in the informal sector. See the suggested definition in the questionnaire
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What are Independent Members of a Board ?
Individuals who have no link to the organization other than being a member of the Board. Countries have adopted specific definitions of what makes a member of the Board „independent of character and judgment‟
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What is Incorporated Entity?
An organization that has been registered according to national procedures by a notary, at the Companies Registry, Register of Commerce or equivalent.
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WHat is Implementation according to the APRM?
Implementation is where a State carries out or executes his or her obligation under a treaty. Implementation gives practical effect to a treaty in order to ensure that desired outcomes are realized.
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What is a Government-linked company (GLC) ?
A corporate entity that may be private or public or listed on a stock exchange where government owns a stake (<50%)
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What is Government tendering system?
The set of arrangements through which the government procures goods and services from independent suppliers (normally through a competitive bidding process)
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What is Good Corporate Citizenship (includes corporate social responsibility) ?
The way an organization takes responsibility for the impact of its activities on the environment, consumers, employees, communities, stakeholders and all other members of the public by the deliberate inclusion of public interest into corporate decision-making, and the honouring of a triple bottom line: People, Planet, Profit.
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What is Gender equality?
Equality between men or women or gender equality implies that equal conditions for all be ensured in order to enable them to fully exercise their rights and potential and contribute to the political, economic, social and cultural development of their society, while benefitting from the outcome.

The concept of integration of the gender dimension into any action was clearly designed as a universal strategy for promoting gender equality in the Platform of Action adopted by the Fourth International Conference on Women held in Beijing in 1995. This notion underscored the need to ensure that gender equality was a priority in all areas of social and economic development.
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What is Fiscal framework?
The overall policy environment and policies that relate to the use of government spending to achieve various objectives. Fiscal policy specifically refers to government‟s management of its revenue (income and expenditure), and how this affects the economy and markets Fiscal policy is contrasted with monetary policy, which refers mainly to the regulation of the money supply (including interest policies and currency valuation), which is the function of the central bank
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What is Financial Inclusion?
The provision of financial services (such as banking, saving and insurance facilities) at affordable costs to vast sections of disadvantaged and low income groups. It is argued that as banking services are in the nature of public good, it is essential that availability of banking and payment services to the entire population without discrimination is the prime objective of public policy
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What is feminization of poverty?
Since the Beijing Conference, poverty of women is perceived and considered as a development problem. Beijing PFA presents the fundamental reasons for persistence of poverty and its weight on women:

- lack of prospects and economic autonomy associated with limited access to productive resources, education, low level of participation in decision-making.

- the little attention paid to analysis of gender equity in the definition of economic policies and plans, - social services that do not adequately take into account the specific situation of women, particularly in the distribution of paid labour and responsibilities within the family and the society,

- vulnerability of women on the labour market for lack of qualification through discrimination, excess family burden, poor health due particularly to lack of access to health services and lack of information and decision on reproductive health and family planning.
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What is Access- Accessibility in the APRM process?
Accessibility is the aptitude of a road or rail network or any other transport network generally evaluated in time of travel or measured in distance to be covered to reach public equipment, an employment pool, arrive at the city centre, obtain a proximity service (trade, leisure, public services, social network). It is presently considered as a good accessibility if one can have access to a daily service within a period of less than 20 minutes and a weekly service within a period of less than one hour.

On the other hand, inaccessibility is considered as the impossibility to obtain a service within a socially-acceptable time frame; it is the synonym of isolation, relegation, exclusion. Accessibility comprises four dimensions that mutually overlap:

- non-discrimination,

- physical accessibility,

- economic accessibility (affordability),

- accessibility of information.
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What is Accession?
Accession is the act whereby a state accepts the offer or the opportunity to become a party to a treaty already negotiated and signed by other states. Accession usually occurs after the treaty has entered into force. The Secretary-General of the United Nations, in his function as depositary, has also accepted accessions to some conventions before their entry into force.

 

The conditions under which accession may occur and the procedure involved depend on the provisions of the treaty. A treaty might provide for the accession of all other states or for a limited and defined number of states. In the absence of such a provision, accession can only occur where the negotiating states were agreed or subsequently agree on it in the case of the state in question.
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What is Accountability ?
The ability to determine who in the government is responsible for a decision or action and the ability to ensure that officials in government are answerable for their actions
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What is Adoption?
Adoption is the formal act by which the form and content of a proposed treaty text are established. As a general rule, the adoption of the text of a treaty takes place through the expression of the consent of the states participating in the treaty-making process. Treaties that are negotiated within an international organization will usually be adopted by a resolution of a representative organ of the organization whose membership more or less corresponds to the potential participation in the treaty in question.

A treaty can also be adopted by an international conference which has specifically been convened for setting up the treaty, by a vote of two thirds of the states present and voting, unless, by the same majority, they have decided to apply a different rule.
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What are Capacities ?
Range of resources (financial and human, technical, administrative, social, economic and scientific) put in place for achieving a determined objective.
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What is Capacity building?
Process through which individuals, groups, organizations, institutions and countries develop their aptitudes, individually and collectively, with a view to performing functions, resolving problems and achieving objectives. Principles 9, 10 and 11 of the Rio de Janeiro Declaration (1992) stipulate that capacity building is part of sustainable development strategies.

It involves strengthening the human resources (training, information, education, exchange of scientific and technical knowledge, cooperation), enhancing the efficiency of technological resources, technology transfer) optimizing management systems (legislative, environmental standards, institutions), enhancing the eco-efficiency of economic instruments (equitable trade, internalization of costs of environmental protection).
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What is Capital formation?
Creation of new capital or the expansion of existing capital, during a fiscal period, normally financed by savings. This includes transfer of savings from individuals or households to the business sector; directly through investments or indirectly through bank deposits; transfer of savings from households and government to the business sector, resulting in increased output and economic expansion.
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Who is classified as children in the APRM review process?
Any person below the age of 18 years.
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What is civil society?
All organizations, networks, and associations between the level of the family and the level of the state, excluding enterprises that exist to pursue private profit, per Zadek (2004) in the Secretary-General‟s Panel of Eminent Persons on UN-Civil Society Relationships. CSOs include but are not limited to the following: Social groups such as those representing women, children, the youth, the elderly and people with disability and special needs; Professional groups such as associations of artists, engineers, health practitioners, social workers, media, teachers, sport associations, legal professionals, social scientists, academia, business organizations, national chambers of commerce, workers, employers, industry and agriculture as well as other private sector interest groups; Non-governmental organizations (NGOs), community-based organizations (CBOs) and voluntary organizations, and; Cultural organizations.
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What is corruption?
The use and misuse of public office, position or resources for personal gain or for purposes for which the office, position or resources were not designed. Corruption may involve the following Bribery (taking/demanding and giving/offering), influence-peddling, nepotism, embezzlement and conflict of interests)
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What is decentralization?
Transfer of power and/or responsibility, concerning the accomplishment of a task, from the general management of an organization or the central department of an institution to lower levels or to the private sector.
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What is Economic diversification?
Increasing the number of sectors in the economy and reducing the economy‟s reliance/dependence on a single or limited number of productive sectors, commodities or markets. It also means the development of internal linkages among existing sectors to complement each other and reduce imbalances in the economy
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What is Environmental sustainability?
Long term maintenance of ecosystems components and functions for the future generation. It could also be defined as meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs.
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What is Equity?
Specifically mentioned in Principle 3 of the Rio Declaration, according to which “the right to development must be fulfilled so as to equitably meet developmental and environmental needs of present (intra-generational equity) and future generations (inter-generational equity)”. The notion of equity refers frequently to that of public interest (general interest).
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What is Equality of chances?
Vision of equality, which seeks to ensure that individuals have the “same chances”, the same socio-economic development opportunities, irrespective of their social or ethnic origin, sex, financial resources of their parents, their place of birth, their religious convictions, eventual disability … Equality of chances consists mainly in favouring population groups that suffer discrimination in order to ensure for them an equity treatment. It implies that differences associated with the environment of origin are neutralized
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What is a Family Owned Enterprise?
A business in which one or more members of one or more families have a significant ownership interest (e.g. >20% of shares) and significant commitments toward the business‟ overall well-being
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What is climate change?
By climate change we mean changes in the climate attributable directly or indirectly to a human activity resulting in a change in the composition of the global atmosphere and which adds to the natural variation of the climate observed during comparable periods
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What is a parastatal?
Quasi-governmental organizations, corporate entities or agencies that are treated by national laws and regulations to be under the guidance of the government, but also separate and autonomous from the government. While the entity may receive some revenue from charging customers for its services, these organizations are often partially or majorly funded by the government.

They are usually considered highly important to the smooth running of society, and are sometimes propped up with cash infusions in times of crisis to help surmount situations that would bankrupt a normal privately-owned business. They may also possess law-enforcement authority, usually related to their functions. They pursue purely non-financial objectives. They should be distinguished from State Owned Enterprises that have a distinct legal form and are established usually by government to operate in commercial affairs
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What is sustainability?
The capacity of an organization to reconcile social, environmental and economic issues in a way that it endures in the long-term.
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What is a tax-regime?
The total system, including processes, rates of taxation, types and categories of taxes and taxpayers to whom they apply, that exist within a country.
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What is the overarching perspective of the APRM?
The overarching perspective of the APRM is good governance predicated on participation regularity, accountability, inclusiveness, openness and transparency and its relationship to efficiency and responsiveness.
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What makes APRM unique?
The APRM is unique both in its scope and breadth, with the review process extending to all levels of government, parliament and the judiciary as well as the private sector and civil society organisations. The APRM also covers simultaneous evaluation in four distinct pillars: Democracy and Good Political Governance, Economic Governance and Management, Corporate Governance and Socio-Economic Development.

The core principle is that every review exercise carried out under the authority of the mechanism must be technically competent, credible and free of political manipulation. It is a non-adversarial learning process among peers that relies heavily on mutual trust among the states involved in the review, as well as shared confidence in the process.
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What is the APRM base review?
Base review when a country officially accedes to the APRM process. Bearing in mind that African countries are at different levels of development, on joining the APRM, a country will be assessed (the base review) and a timetable (programme of action) for effecting progress towards achieving the agreed standards and goals must be drawn up by the state in question, taking into account the particular circumstances of that state.

According to the Base Documents, the Base Review is supposed to be undertaken within 18 months of a country becoming a member of the APRM process.
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What is the APRM Periodic review?
Periodic review which are meant to be conducted every two-four years;
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What is the APRM Ad-hoc review?
Ad-hoc review which might be requested specially by an APRM member state;
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WHat is the APRM Special review ?
Special review which might be initiated at any moment when early warning signs suggest an impending political, economic or social crisis in an APRM member state. This type of review would be conducted in the spirit of assistance between African states, and would be called for by the APRM Heads of State and Government Implementation Committee (APR Forum), in solidarity with the government concerned.
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What is the APRM country self-assessment based on?

The  questionnaire is principally focused on the comprehensive Base Review. https://mathsgee.com/qna/1840/what-is-the-aprm-base-review?show=1840#q1840

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How many sections is the APRM country self-assesment questionnaire divided into?
The Questionnaire is divided into four major sections corresponding to the four focus areas in the “Objectives, Standards, Criteria and Indicators for the APRM” document

a) Democracy and Good Political Governance

b) Economic Governance and Management

c) Corporate Governance

d) Socio-economic Development
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What are the objectives in  each focus area of the APRM country self-assessment questionnaire?
The objectives define the essential elements of the overall goal that must be achieved in a measurable way.
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What are the questions in each focus area of the APRM country self-assessment questionnaire?
The questions serve to focus on what the country has done with regard to the objectives and the codes, how it does it and with what results.
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What are the indicators in each focus area of the APRM country self-assessment questionnaire
The indicators are the type of evidence that is expected in the responses of countries. The indicators serve to highlight aspects of the objective, standard or code that are generally recognised as measures of performance and results.
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How does APRM validate results from a country self-assessment research?
Validation is the process of ensuring that most stakeholders broadly agree as to the outcome of the self assessment and that the key governance issues identified are those that are of general and common concern. This is achieved through a careful selection of a set of indicators that can adequately provide, collectively, a satisfactory measure of the concept.

The validation of the instrument prepared by the consultants has to be carried out at national level in order to find out if the instruments' options were properly worded and exhaustive, if concepts and questions had sufficient clarity, and if the instructions were adequate. In addition, the Pre-test is expected to reveal if there were any problems with the translations to local languages, the presentation and/or administration of the research instruments, and to test how long it would take to provide responses to all items in the instruments (The APRM Research Protocol Provides more information on Validation).
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What are Cross-cutting Issues?
Cross-cutting issues are defined as those issues that recur in almost every area of governance and have to be tackled holistically due to the overall impact they have on several areas of governance.

Some of the common cross-cutting issues identified in past reviews include: land, corruption; gender issues; implementation gaps and lack of capacity etc.

Some of the cross-cutting issues are common among countries but some are specific to a particular country. Countries are therefore encouraged to isolate all cross-cutting issues that are relevant to their specific circumstances and analyse them comprehensively in a Chapter at the end of the CSAR
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Why is it important to isolate cross-cutting issues during the APRM process?

By including the most relevant cross-cutting issues in its development policies and strategies, the participating country is able to respond more effectively to particular circumstances.

Taking account of cross-cutting issues helps participating countries and their development partners to:

  • identify the key constraints affecting growth, poverty reduction, equity, opportunity, security and empowerment in a given country
  • work with national stakeholders on measures to address these issues
  • incorporate such measures into the domestic development strategy
  • monitor the outcomes of a policy of integrating cross-cutting issues
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Why is it important for self-assessing countries countries ensure that all participating stakeholders are aware of these cross-cutting issues?
When domesticating the questionnaire, questions and indicators on selected cross-cutting issues should be built into every section/thematic area of the questionnaire.

It is therefore suggested that countries ensure that all participating stakeholders are aware of these cross-cutting issues, as well as others that might be of special significance within the context of the country, and that they be invited to identify other cross-cutting issues they consider important from the perspective of the country.
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What information is required for each standard and code in the APRM process?
For each standard and code, please indicate dates of signature, ratification and domestication as applicable.
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Is it necessary to describe the approaches or methods that facilitated the domestication of the codes and standards ratified?
Yes, describe the approaches or methods that facilitated the domestication of the codes and standards ratified, such as:

- enactment into domestic legislation

- translation into national languages, organization of seminars and conferences on popularization and publication of regular reports on implementation of the standards and conventions, advocacy, teaching programmes ….);

- creation of easily-accessible databases on the standards and codes signed, ratified and integrated for monitoring purposes;

- existence of programmes aimed at disseminating the information on the standards and codes signed, ratified or integrated into the national system.

- use of the codes and standards in formulation of policies and design of national development programmes and projects
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How do countries describe the progress registered in the respect of the norms and achievement of the objectives, in terms of appropriate results indicators in the SAQ?
Describe the progress registered in the respect of the norms and achievement of the objectives, in terms of appropriate results indicators. Outline where applicable, efforts or progress to ensure compliance with the relevant standard or codes. Respondents should identify and focus on codes that are particularly relevant within their country‟s political and social contexts, especially on African standards and codes.
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How do respondents identify the obstacles faced and any steps being taken to sign, ratify, enact/implement, for the standards and codes that have not been signed, ratified or enacted/implemented?
For the standards and codes that have not been signed, ratified or enacted/implemented, outline the obstacles faced and any steps being taken to sign, ratify, enact/implement such standards? Respondents should identify and focus on codes that are particularly relevant within their country‟s political and social contexts, especially on African standards and codes.
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What is one of the main goals of the APRM?
Promotion of democracy and good political governance as a basis for the reduction of poverty and the attainment of sustainable development.
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How does APRM  measure some of the key requirements for the promotion of a democratic and well governed society?
A Guaranteed Framework of Equal Citizen Rights - This category of concerns includes issues such as access to justice, respect for the rule of law, the freedoms of expression, association and assembly, as well as the basic economic and social rights to enable citizens to exercise these freedoms effectively.
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What is the promotion of institutions of representative and accountable government?
This encompasses the regular organization of free and fair elections as one of the principal means for ensuring popular participation in the constitution of the government and the monitoring of its performance. It also touches on the procedures that are designed to ensure the continuous accountability of officials, elected as well as non-elected, to the public.
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What is a Vibrant Civil Society?
This includes the existence of free and pluralistic media and vibrant civil society organisations. It also touches upon the system of public consultation for encouraging popular participation in the political process, involving marginalised groups in decision-making, eliciting governmental responsiveness to public opinion, and improving public service delivery.

Close attention will be paid to the extent to which women, children and other marginalized groups such as internally displaced persons and refugees are integrated into the consultative process.
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What specific objectives” have been developed to guide respondents as they expound on democracy and political governance issues in their countries?

A number of specific objectives” have been developed to guide respondents as they expound on democracy and political governance issues in their countries.

These are:

  • Constitutional democracy and the Rule of Law
  • The Separation of powers
  • Prevention and reduction of intra and inter-state conflicts
  • Promotion and protection of civil and political rights.
  • Ensuring accountable, efficient and effective public service delivery at the national and decentralized levels
  • Promotion and protection of the rights of women
  • Promotion and protection of the rights of children and young persons
  • Promotion and protection of the rights of vulnerable groups

Additional information and guidelines are provided at the beginning of each objective. Respondents are reminded that the objectives and associated indicators should be interpreted flexibly so as to allow to the respondents to contextualize responses to suit their country contexts. A country‟s background and context should always be given to provide an anchor for the country to allow for domestication of questions where applicable and to guide the assessment of the country.

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What are the different statuses for standards and codes in the APRM SAQ process?

There are 3 statuses, namely:

  • Adopted /signed (include date)
  • Ratified
  • Enacted
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WHat is the Declaration of Basic Principles of Justice for Victims of Crime and Abuse of Power (1985)?

United Nations Declaration of Basic Principles of Justice for Victims of Crime and Abuse of Power 1985

A/RES/40/34 29 November 1985 96th plenary meeting Declaration of Basic Principles of Justice for Victims of Crime and Abuse of Power The GeneralAssembly, Recalling that the Sixth United Nations Congress on the Prevention ofCrime and the Treatment of Offenders recommended that the United Nations should continue its 

https://www.un.org/documents/ga/res/40/a40r034.htm

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What is the Cairo Declaration of the Assembly of Heads of State on the Establishment, within the OAU, of a Mechanism for Conflict Prevention, Management and Resolution (1993) ?
1. When the Government of Angola and UNITA signed the Bicesse Agreement on 31 May, 1991, in Portugal, the whole world, particularly Africa, commended this great event which they though could bring to the Angolan people the long desired peace, national reconciliation and democracy; 2. The Angolan people demonstrated their adherence to these noble objectives by participating enthusiastically and in an orderly manner in the legislative and presidential elections of 29 and 30 September, 1992, considered free and fair by the international community; 3. Owing to UNITA’s refusal to accept the electoral verdict and simultaneously with the launching of armed action against the defenceless population, and democratically elected institutions, the military occupation of villages, municipalities and communities, the indiscriminate destruction of economic and social infrastructures of vital importance to the life of the population, the Angolan people feel now that the aspiration for peace, freedom and democracy have been betrayed and now confronted with a man-made catastrophic situation, resulting from the increase of bellicose actions carried out by UNITA’s military wing; 4. Thus, we renew our strong commitment to the preservation of unity and territorial integrity of Angola and reaffirm our full support for the efforts deplored by the international observers of the Troika for the Angolan peace process; we, also ENCOURAGE them to proceed with their search for a peaceful solution to the conflict; 5. We, strongly condemn UNITA for its repeated massacres of civilian populations and destruction of social infrastructures; we recommend that the United Nations Security Council impose sanctions and take concrete measures, including the closure of UNITA’s Representative offices abroad so as to neutralize its war-like actions and force it to accept dialogue as the only way to achieve peace; 6. We, urgently call on the governments of Angola’s neighbouring countries not to allow the use of their territories and space as a spring board or headquarters to support the actions carried out by its military wing in Angolan territory; 7. We, commend the government of Cote d’Ivoire and in particular, His Excellency, President Houphouet Boigny, for the contribution he has been making towards the restoration of peace in Angola and encourage him to pursue the already initiated action by making UNITA adopt a constructive and favourable stand on peace; 8. We also praise the Angolan Government for its continued readiness to maintain dialogue with UNITA, as well as for its goodwill demonstrated in the search for a peaceful settlement of the conflict. In this regard, we strongly call on UNITA to resume as soon as possible the peace talks with the government, with a view to establishing a definitive ceasefire and ensure a full implementation of the “Peace Agreement”; 9. We call on the OAU Member States and the international community to provide urgent humanitarian aid in order to mitigate the sufferings of the people in this country and urge UNITA not to impede or hinder the delivery of humanitarian assistance to civilian population affected by the war; 10. We express our satisfaction with the recognition of the Angolan government by the present American Administration and encourage the Administration to proceed with its efforts to contribute, in collaboration with the Angolan Government, to the establishment of peace in Angola and safeguard democracy in the Continent.
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What is the Memorandum of Understanding, Conference on Security, Stability, Development and Cooperation in Africa (CSSDCA) (2002) ?
To respect and abide by the following indivisible core values, all of primary importance, in guiding our relations: - a) Every African State is sovereign. Every State respects the rights inherent in the territorial integrity and political independence of all other African States, without prejudice to the provisions of Article 4 of the AU Constitutive Act, sections (d) and (h) and other relevant international instruments. b) The centrality of security as a multi-dimensional phenomenon that goes beyond military considerations and embraces all aspects of human existence, including economic, political and social dimensions of individual, family, community and national life. c) Peace and security are central to the realization of development of both the state and individuals. Thus the security of the African people, their land and property must be safeguarded to ensure stability, development and cooperation of African countries. d) The security of each African country is inseparably linked to that of other African countries and the African continent as a whole. OAU/CIVIL SOCIETY.3 (II) Annex Page 3 e) The plight of African Refugees and Internally Displaced Persons constitutes a scar on the conscience of African governments and people. f) Africa’s strategic and natural resources are the property of the people of Africa and the leadership should exploit them for the common good of the people of the continent, having due regard for the need to restore, preserve and protect the environment. g) Uncontrolled spread of small arms and light weapons as well as the problem of landmines, constitute a threat to peace and security in the African continent. h) Good governance including, accountability, transparency, the rule of law, elimination of corruption and unhindered exercise of individual rights as enshrined in the African Charter on Human and People’s Rights and those of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights is a pre-requisite for sustainable peace and security in Africa as well as a necessary condition for economic development, cooperation and integration; i) A fundamental link exists between stability, human security, development and cooperation in a manner that each reinforces the other. j) Sustainable Stability in Africa demands the establishment and strengthening of democratic structures and good governance based on common tenets. k) The rejection of unconstitutional changes of government in any African country as a threat to order and stability in the African continent as a whole. l) Respect and promotion of human rights, the rule of law and equitable social order as the foundation for national and continental stability. m)The eradication of corruption, which undermines Africa’s quest for socio-economic development and the achievement of sustainable stability in the continent. OAU/CIVIL SOCIETY.3 (II) Annex Page 4 n) No political organisation should be created on the basis of religious, sectarian, ethnic, regional or racial considerations. Political life should be devoid of any extremism. o) The conduct of electoral processes in a transparent and credible manner and a concomitant obligation by the parties and candidates to abide by the outcome of such processes in order to enhance national and continental stability. p) Development is about expanding human freedoms. The effort of Member States at achieving development is aimed at the maximum expansion of the freedoms that people enjoy; q) The freedoms that Africans seek and deserve, inter alia, include freedom from hunger, freedom from disease, freedom from ignorance and access to the basic necessities for enhancing the quality of life. These freedoms can best be achieved through expansion of the economic space including the rapid creation of wealth; r) Economic development is a combined result of individual action. Africans must be free to work and use their creative energies to improve their well-being in their own countries. The state’s involvement in the activities of individual economic actors should be supportive of individual initiatives; s) Acknowledgement of the important role of the state in economic development not only in providing regulatory framework but also through active cooperation with private sector, and civil society, including business associations and organizations as partners of development to promote economic growth, social and economic justice; t) All priorities in economic policy making shall be geared towards eliminating poverty from the continent and generating rapid and sustainable development in the shortest possible time; u) Cooperation and integration in Africa is key to the continent’s socio-economic transformation and effective integration into the world economy; OAU/CIVIL SOCIETY.3 (II) Annex Page 5 v) Harmonization and strengthening of the Regional Economic Communities (RECs) in key areas as an essential component of the integration process, through the transfer of certain responsibilities as well as effective reporting and communication structure involving the RECs in continental initiatives; w) Strong political commitment including the involvement of all stakeholders, the private sector, civil society, women and youth as a fundamental principle for the achievement of regional economic integration and development; x) Investment in Science and Technology as a fundamental input into the development of all sectors and raising living standards.
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What is the Advisory Opinion of the African Commission on Human and Peoples‟ Rights on the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (2007)?

The United Nations Declaration on the rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP) constitutes a landmark in the struggle of indigenous peoples worldwide, including Africa. It is the most comprehensive international human rights instrument to explicitly address the rights of indigenous peoples. At its 41st Ordinary Session held in May 2001, In Accra, Ghana, the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights (African Commission) adopted the “Advisory Opinion on the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples”, in which it stated that the Rights enshrines in the UNDRIP were consistent with the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights and the jurisprudence of the African Commission. As a testimony to the continuing support and advocacy of the UNDRIP, the African Commission’s Working Group on Indigenous Populations/Communities has produced a combined publication of the UNDRIP and the Advisory Opinion of the African Commission on the UNDRIP.

https://www.iwgia.org/en/resources/publications/305-books/2979-advisory-opinion-of-the-african-commission-on-human-and-peoples-rights-on-the-united-nations-declaration-of-indigenous-peoples

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What is the Principles and Guidelines on the Right to a Fair Trial and Legal Assistance in Africa (2001)?

 

As a minimum the right to fair trial includes the following fair trial rights in civil and criminal proceedings:

  • the right to be heard by a competent, independent and impartial tribunal.
  • the right to a public hearing.
  • the right to be heard within a reasonable time.
  • the right to counsel.
  • the right to interpretation.
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What is the Ouagadougou Declaration and Plan of Action on Accelerating Prison and Penal Reform in Africa (2003)?

The participants at the second pan-African Conference on Prison and Penal Reform in Africa, held in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso between 18-20 September 2002, recommend:

1. Reducing the prison population

Criminal justice agencies should work together more closely to make less use of imprisonment. The prison population can only be reduced by a concerted strategy. It should be based on accurate and widely publicized information on the numbers and kinds of people in prison and on the social and financial impact of imprisonment. Reduction strategies should be ongoing and target both sentenced and unsentenced prisoners

2. Making African prisons more self-sufficient

Further recognition should be given to the reality that resources for imprisonment are severely limited and that therefore African prisons have to be as self sufficient as possible. Governments should recognize, however, that they are ultimately responsible for ensuring that standards are maintained so that prisoners can live in dignity and health.

3. Promoting the reintegration of offenders into society

Greater effort should be made to make positive use of the period of imprisonment or other sanction to develop the potential of offenders and to empower them to lead a crime-free life in the future. This should include rehabilitative programmes focusing on the reintegration of offenders and contributing to their individual and social development.

4. Applying the rule of law to prison administration

There should be a comprehensive law governing prisons and the implementation of punishment. Such law should be clear and unambiguous about the rights and duties of prisoners and prison officials. Officials should be trained to follow proper administrative procedures and to apply this law fairly. Administrative decisions that impact on the rights of prisoners should be subject to review by an independent and impartial judicial body.

5. Encouraging best practice

Further exchange of examples of best penal practice is to be encouraged at national, regional and international levels. This can be enhanced by the establishment of an all-African association of those involved in penal matters. The rich experience available across the continent can best be utilized if proven and effective programmes are progressively implemented in more countries. The Plan of Action to be developed from the proceedings of the Ouagadougou Conference will serve to further such exchange.

6. Promoting an African Charter on Prisoners' Rights

Action should be taken to promote the draft African Charter on Prisoners' Rights as an instrument that is appropriate to the needs of developing countries of the continent and to refer it to the African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights and the African Union.

7. Looking towards the United Nations Charter on the Basic Rights of Prisoners

The international criminal justice community should look towards developing a United Nations Charter of Basic Rights for Prisoners with a view to strengthening the rule of law in the treatment of offenders. African experience and concerns should be reflected in this Charter, which should be presented to the 11th United Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and Criminal Justice in Bangkok, Thailand, 2005.

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What is the Solemn Declaration on Gender Equality in Africa (2004)?

The Solemn Declaration on Gender Equality in Africa was adopted by the AU Assembly in 2004, calling for member states’ continual action toward achieving gender equality and reinforcing their commitment to international and regional women’s rights instruments. In addition to calling for wider ratification of the Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa, it also addresses state responsibility for tackling violence against women and gender-based discrimination.

To achieve gender equality, the SDGEA is subdivided into 6 thematic areas of action: governance; peace and security; human rights; health; education; economic empowerment. Each of these areas of action are guided by international and regional human rights instruments which have been supported or adopted by the AU. Some of these instruments which form the normative framework for the SDGEA include:

• Dakar Platform for Action (1994)
• Beijing Platform for Action (1995)
• Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (1979)
• African Plan of Action to Accelerate the Implementation of the Dakar and Beijing
• Platforms for Action for the Advancement of Women (1999);
• Outcome Document of the Twenty-third Special Session of the United Nations
• General Assembly Special Session on the Implementation of the Beijing Platform for
• Action (2000);
• UN Security Council Resolution 1325 on Women, Peace and Security (2000) and successive Resolutions relating to women, peace and security.
• The Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights on the Rights of
• Women in Africa (2003)
• Seventh African Regional Conference on Women (Beijing +10); Decade Review of the
• Implementation of the Dakar and Beijing Platforms for Action: Outcome and the Way
• Forward (2004)
• International Conference on Population Development Platform of Action (1994)

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What is the African Union Non-Aggression and Common defence Pact (2005)?

The objectives of this Pact are:

(i)

to promote cooperation among the Member States in the areas of non-aggression and common defence,

(ii)

to promote peaceful co-existence in Africa,

(iii)

to prevent conflicts of inter-State or intra-State nature, and

(iv)

to ensure that disputes are resolved by peaceful means.

b.

In pursuance of these objectives, this Pact seeks to define a framework under which the Union may intervene or authorise intervention, in preventing or addressing situations of aggression, in conformity with the Constitutive Act, the Protocol and the Common African Defence and Security Policy;

c.

Consequently, any aggression or threat of aggression against any of the Member States shall be deemed to constitute a threat or aggression against all Member States of the Union.

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Why are constitutional democracy and the rule of law treated as two separate but related sub-issues?
Constitutional democracy refers to constitutionally established provisions and institutions which enable citizens to enjoy their rights of freedom of membership of political associations of their choosing and the free participation of these political groups and other associations in open political competition.

On the other hand, the rule of law and the supremacy of the Constitution ensure that all individuals are subject to and treated equally according to the law, and that no one is exposed to arbitrary treatment by the state. The rule of law also means that all authorities, including armed forces and security forces must obey the law. Furthermore, the legislative Acts of government should be enacted in conformity with the Constitution which is both the supreme law at the domestic level and the foundation on which the exercise of all powers within the state is based. This also encompasses the regular organization of free and fair elections as one of the principal means for ensuring popular participation in the constitution of the government and the monitoring of its performance.
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